Diabetes is a health problem that bothers many people around the whole world despite their race, gender, and age. The peculiar feature of this disease is that it cannot be treated. Therefore, people should try to do everything possible to learn about the potential risk factors and screen for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in accordance with the guidelines and recommendations given. For example, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (2014) can be used to explain the correct application of the screening and unite it to the epidemiological statistics about the chosen disease. This paper aims at discussing the peculiarities of the disease and screening guidelines to prepare the population for diabetes, its prevalence, and possible complications.
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During the last several decades, lifestyle and environmental changes promote a significant increase in the T2D prevalence. In 1985, the number of people who had diabetes was about 30 million, and in 2014, this number raised up to 382 million (Leon & Maddox, 2015). Approximately 1 in11adults have T2D (Zheng, Ley, & Hu, 2018). The main risk factors include diabetes family history, expose to viruses, obesity, the lack of physical activities, or a damaged immune system (Leon & Maddox, 2015). Risk assessment should be applied to adults who suffer from high blood pressure, and the measurement of blood pressure is the first step in recommendations (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2014). However, it is also necessary to admit that many people continue living with diabetes or pre-diabetes conditions without even being aware of it.
To promote effective screening for diabetes, special attention to the epidemiology of mortality and morbidity should be paid. Today, diabetes turns out to be the ninth main cause of death among the population (Zheng et al., 2018). Though T2D is not as dangerous as T1D, the number of annual deaths is about 5,000 people globally (Zheng et al., 2018). Approximately 1.5 million new cases of diabetes occur every year, and the number of pre-diabetic people regularly increases (Zheng et al., 2018). These cases can be prevented in case people choose appropriate lifestyle changes, reduce their smoking and alcohol habits, maintain a healthy weight, and stay physically active.
In adults, screening for T2D should be properly organized and explained. The patient population is usually a number of asymptomatic adults who have sustained blood pressure that is greater than 135/80 mm Hg (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2014). There are several screening tests that can be offered to patients. A fasting plasma glucose test should be taken in the morning with a fasting period of about eight hours. A glycated hemoglobin test aims to estimate an average blood glucose level during the last three months. There is no clearly defined screening interval for diabetes. Still, it is generally recommended to be tested every three years (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2014). The importance of screening cannot be ignored because the sooner the diagnosis is proved, the better treatment therapies can be offered. People can learn to live with diabetes. Special nursing interventions, home-based practices, and medications should be taken into consideration.
In general, type 2 diabetes is a serious health burden that can be observed in different parts of the world. Some populations are ready to deal with it because of properly developed screening recommendations and guidelines. Some countries have to develop new approaches and support people in living with diabetes. Screening tests, risk factors, and epidemiologic data are the changing concepts. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor them regularly to avoid serious diabetic complications.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2014). The guide to clinical preventive services. Web.
Leon, B. M., & Maddox, T. M. (1015). Diabetes and cardiovascular disease: Epidemiology, biological mechanisms, treatment recommendations and future research. World Journal of Diabetes, 6(13), 1246-1258. Web.
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Zheng, Y., Ley, S. H., & Hu, F. B. (2018). Global aetiology and epidemiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 14(2), 88-98. Web.