Patients presenting with bipolar disorder are more mentally disturbed than the patients presenting with generalized anxiety disorder (Geller et al., 2002). Patients presenting with bipolar disorder for the first time are usually teenagers or young adults while those presenting with generalized anxiety disorder are at different stages of life. Bipolar disorder patients are characterized by intense mood changes that may last for several days or weeks (Geller et al., 2002). On the other hand, patients presenting with generalized anxiety disorder are characterized by fear associated with life events or things (Fricchione, 2004). Symptoms of the generalized anxiety disorder last longer than those in patients presenting with bipolar disorder. Patients presenting with generalized anxiety disorder are characterized by fear that is excessive, debilitating, persistent and intrusive (Fricchione, 2004). Patients presenting with bipolar disorder are characterized by manic episodes that alter their ability to operate and carry on their daily activities.
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Teaching patients how to use inhaled medication devices
It has been shown that patients’ medication compliance is positively correlated to educational approaches used to teach the patients how to use of various medications (Kripalani, Bengtzen, Henderson & Jacobson, 2008). Medication compliance by patients is best accomplished by teaching methods that combine written material with practical applications. The best method to use in teaching patients how to use inhaled medication devices is the teach-back method. It combines written information materials with practical sessions. If patients under medication are too weak or unconscious to comprehend medication instructions, then their caretakers or relatives are taught how to give the patients medications (Kripalani et al., 2008).
The method might involve a healthcare professional teaching many patients under the same medication how to use them correctly. Also, it might involve only one patient and a healthcare professional. In both scenarios, the healthcare professional makes the sessions interactive by engaging those being taught. This method ensures that patients and/or their family members understand how medications should be taken, and further explanations are offered if they are found to misunderstand some parts of the instructions. This method would be used to teach both illiterate and literate patients how to use inhaled medication devices. The practical sessions accommodate the illiterate patients because they do not involve written tests (Kripalani et al., 2008). This method would reduce non-compliance by patients using the inhaled medication devices.
Lung cancers and how their occurrence and deaths can be reduced
Based on the visual aspect of tumor cells observed under a microscope, lung cancers are grouped into two groups: small cell lung cancers and non-small cell lung cancers. Research shows that lung cancers form and spread at different rates depending on various biological factors (Jemal, Siegel, Xu & Ward, 2010). The small cell lung cancer is the most rapidly growing and spreading form of lung cancers. Although lung cancers occur and kill many people in the US and worldwide, its rates of development and killing can be brought down. One of the ways to reduce its occurrence is by avoiding cigarette smoking. Exposure to carcinogens should also be avoided to reduce risks of lung cancers. People should consume alcohol in moderate amount, but eat a lot of fruits and vegetables. It has also been shown that lung cancers can be avoided by exercising regularly (Jemal et al., 2010).
Fricchione, G. (2004). Generalized anxiety disorder. New England Journal of Medicine, 351(7), 675-682.
Geller, B., Zimerman, B., Williams, M., DelBello, M. P., Bolhofner, K., Craney, J. L.,… & Nickelsburg, M. J. (2002). DSM-IV mania symptoms in a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype compared to attention-deficit hyperactive and normal controls. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 12(1), 11-25.
Jemal, A., Siegel, R., Xu, J., & Ward, E. (2010). Cancer statistics, 2010. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, 60(5), 277-300.
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Kripalani, S., Bengtzen, R., Henderson, L. E., & Jacobson, T. A. (2008). Clinical research in low-literacy populations: using teach-back to assess comprehension of informed consent and privacy information. IRB: Ethics and Human Research, 30(2), 13-19.