DNA Profiles in the Golden State Killer Case

How was DNA used to solve the Golden State Killer case? Is it ethical to obtain the results via this tool?

One of the most recent tools available for crime investigations is a DNA match of one’s profile in a publicly available genealogy database. The initial idea of these websites is to provide people with an opportunity to find genetic relatives by uploading their DNA profiles. However, the Golden State Killer case has revealed opportunities for an investigative genetic genealogy – identifying suspects through the ancestry-search (Molteni, 2019). At the same time, this new tool raised concerns about privacy. Currently, no laws are regulating the scope of employment of the retrieved information. The use of these databases by forensic specialists can be justified in case there is a legal framework that protects the privacy of an individual.

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Reference

Molteni, M. (2019). What the Golden State Killer Tells Us About Forensic Genetics. Web.

Pros and cons of the use of genetically-modified organisms in agriculture

Since the human population is growing, especially in the developing world, the demand for food is likely to soar. The solution is to increase the corps yield with the help of genetically-modified organisms because the current rate of increase is less than 1.7% a year (Zhang, Wohlhueter & Zhang, 2016). Moreover, the employment of GMO technologies reduces the time to create a new type of crops, which will, for example, better adapt to the changing environment of the particular region.

However, there are disadvantages associated with the spread of GMO technologies. First of all, particular GM corps may lead to the development of pests resistant to pesticides. Besides, many agricultural companies patent genes and receive patent royalties, which limits the applicability of GM seeds. There were cases when farmers were accused of stealing GM seeds and forced to pay royalties, but in reality, these seeds had been transferred by wind (Robaey, 2016).

References

Robaey, Z. (2016). Transferring moral responsibility for technological hazards: The case of GMOs in agriculture. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 29(5), 767-786.

Zhang, C., Wohlhueter, R., & Zhang, H. (2016). Genetically modified foods: A critical review of their promise and problems. Food Science and Human Wellness, 5(3), 116-123.

What is bioinformatics?

Bioinformatics is a field of science that applies a large amount of biological data to support scientific discoveries with the help of information technologies (Bilotta, Tradigo & Veltri, 2019). The underlying approach of bioinformatics is linked to systems biology that allows analyzing biological systems in their complexity. The examples of bioinformatics tools are numerous; for example, the well-known Human Genome Project (HGP).

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An international group of scientists managed to decipher the human genome, which shed light on the structure and functions of human genes. As proteins are the building blocks of genes, it is crucial to determine their functions in various cells. It has become possible with the evolution of proteomics, a discipline that identifies proteins in an organism. Another example is genome editing, a technology that allows altering the DNA of the organism.

Reference

Bilotta, M., Tradigo, G., & Veltri, P. (2019). Bioinformatics data models, representation and storage. Encyclopedia of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, 1, 110-116. Web.

What are three examples of carcinogens? What are the five cancer risk factors?

Carcinogens are substances that can cause the formation of cancer. Several carcinogens are present in everyday life of many people no matter where they live or work. Tobacco smoking or indirect exposure to tobacco fumes, emissions from coal burning, both indoor and outdoor, and consumption of processed red meat are examples of carcinogens. Cancer risk factors are divided into external factors and internal ones. Therefore, biological aging and genetic susceptibility are considered as internal factors that vary from individual to individual. Exposure to radiation, chemical carcinogens, and viruses that provoke cancer are the external factors that are hard to control (Wu, Zhu, Thompson & Hannun, 2018).

Reference

Wu, S., Zhu, W., Thompson, P., & Hannun, Y. (2018). Evaluating intrinsic and non-intrinsic cancer risk factors. Nature Communications, 9(1). Web.

Describe the structure of DNA and RNA using the terms transcription and translation

DNA serves as information storage for the production of big molecules – proteins. Each DNA molecule consists of linked together monomers, which are called nucleotides. There are only four types of nucleotide monomers – adenine (A), cytosine (C), thymine (T), and guanine (G). A sequence of nucleotides that codes for a single molecule is called a gene. Genes are used for the synthesis of proteins, which is a two-steps process. At the first stage, a sequence of nucleotides of one gene is replicated in an RNA molecule through a transcription process. At the next stage, an RNA molecule translates the code, which leads to the formation of an amino-acid chain of polypeptides (Bailey, 2019). Similarly to DNA, RNA consists of 4 nucleotides – adenine, cytosine, uracil in place of thymine, and guanine.

Reference

Bailey, R. (2019). Translation: Making Protein Synthesis Possible. Web.

References

Bailey, R. (2019). Translation: Making Protein Synthesis Possible. Web.

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Bilotta, M., Tradigo, G., & Veltri, P. (2019). Bioinformatics data models, representation and storage. Encyclopedia of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, 1, 110-116. Web.

Molteni, M. (2019). What the Golden State Killer Tells Us About Forensic Genetics. Web.

Robaey, Z. (2016). Transferring moral responsibility for technological hazards: The case of GMOs in agriculture. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 29(5), 767-786.

Wu, S., Zhu, W., Thompson, P., & Hannun, Y. (2018). Evaluating intrinsic and non-intrinsic cancer risk factors. Nature Communications, 9(1). Web.

Zhang, C., Wohlhueter, R., & Zhang, H. (2016). Genetically modified foods: A critical review of their promise and problems. Food Science and Human Wellness, 5(3), 116-123.

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StudyCorgi. (2021, June 22). DNA Profiles in the Golden State Killer Case. Retrieved from https://studycorgi.com/dna-profiles-in-the-golden-state-killer-case/

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"DNA Profiles in the Golden State Killer Case." StudyCorgi, 22 June 2021, studycorgi.com/dna-profiles-in-the-golden-state-killer-case/.

1. StudyCorgi. "DNA Profiles in the Golden State Killer Case." June 22, 2021. https://studycorgi.com/dna-profiles-in-the-golden-state-killer-case/.


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StudyCorgi. "DNA Profiles in the Golden State Killer Case." June 22, 2021. https://studycorgi.com/dna-profiles-in-the-golden-state-killer-case/.

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StudyCorgi. 2021. "DNA Profiles in the Golden State Killer Case." June 22, 2021. https://studycorgi.com/dna-profiles-in-the-golden-state-killer-case/.

References

StudyCorgi. (2021) 'DNA Profiles in the Golden State Killer Case'. 22 June.

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