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Eastern Religion Elements Matrix

Eastern Religion Elements Matrix

HINDUISM BUDDHISM CONFUCIANISM TAOISM SHINTO
COUNTRIES inDIA, japan, indonesia CHINA, india, japan, korea CHINA,JAPAN,
KOREA,
TAIWAN
china japan
HISTORICAL FIGURES and EVENTS no founder, except divinly figures of holy books founder- ashoka, different budhist councils confucius from Zhou dynasty-founder, based on five classics hermit tradition, social and tribal conflicts in china NATIONAL RELIGION OF JAPAN TILL 9thA.D. OFFICIAL STATE RELIGION AFTER 1868.
CENTRAL BELIEFS SOUL IS IMPORTANT- KARMA, DHARMA/SANATANA DHARMA NIRVARA- OVERCOME EARTHLY SUFFERINGS MORAL, POLITICAL, SOCIAL &PHILOSOPHICAL IDEOLOGY. NIRVANA AND MOKSHA- SELF REALISATION OF SOUL. NATURE AND DIFFERENT FORMS OF NATURE
NATURE OF GOD IDOL WORSHIP do not believe in the concept of a personal God. code of conduct, GOD IS WITH IN US. BELIEVE IN PANTHEIST PHILOSOPHY BELIEVE IN DEITIES(KAMI)
TEXTS Tantras, the Agama, the Puranas and the epics Mahābhārata and Ramayana. The Bhagavad Gita. NO SPECIFIC TEXTS BUT ONLY MORAL TEACHINGS The Si Shu or FoUR BOOKS, Wu Jing or Five Classics The Tao-te Ching, Chuang-tzu The Kojiki, The Rokkok The Shoku Nihongi and its Nihon Shoki ushi, AND The Jinno Shotoki
RITUAL and PRACTICE
(sacred elements & their meaning)
BASED ON DEVOTION OF GOD or several gods. OTHER VIEW- Realization of the Self through INTENSE MEDITATION MEDITATION THROUGH SANGHA, SADHAKA, SAMYOGHA (MIND, BODY, SOUL) BASED ON FOUR LIFE PASSAGES( BIRTH, MATURITY, MARRIAGE, DEATH) “The Three Pure Ones”(HIGHEST DIETIES) IS THE AVATHAR OF Taoism POLYTHEISM, ANIMISM, WORSHIP OF KAMI OR SPIRITS
ETHICS and MORALITY KARMA, DHARMA, ACHARA. Man-made moral laws and customs do not form Buddhist Ethics BUT THEY ARE intrinsically a part of nature, and the unchanging law of cause and effect (kaRma) FOCUSES ON RElATIONSHIPS. LIVE IN HARMONY AND PEACE AND BE ONE WITH NATURE ONENESS, DYNAMIC BALANCE, CYCLICAL GROWTH, HARMONIOUS ACTION. Shintoists generally follow the code of Confucianism.

Hinduism

Hinduism is the religion found in countries like India, Japan and Indonesia. It is the prominent religion in the Indian sub-continent. Hinduism is also called as ‘Santana Dharma’ which meant “the eternal law” in Sanskrit language. This religion is based on different principles and different forms of worship.

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Many religious studies focused on Hinduism reveals that Hindu God and/or gods promote various types of worship like Panentheism, pantheism, monotheism, polytheism, and atheism. These studies also reveal that the chief qualities of Hinduism include the belief in rebirth, karma and dharma or the personal duty and it is the oldest religion in India which is believed to have started in the Iron Age of India.

In his article called ‘Scriptures of Hinduism’ Jayaram V. identifies that the “Major scriptures of Hinduism include the Tantras, the Agama, the Puranas and the epics Mahābhārata and Ramayana.” (V, Jayaram, 2009). Other important text of Hinduism is “the Bhagavad Gita, an exposition from the Mahabharata, spoken by Krishna, is a summary of the spiritual teachings of the Vedas.” (Hinduism, 2000). These epics and holy books are regarded as the oldest that contain many moral teachings. (Hinduism, 2000)

Buddhism

Buddhism is based on the teachings and ideologies of Siddhartha Gautama, generally known as “Buddha”. Buddhism is mainly found in China, Japan and India. This is a group of holy beliefs and practices measured by most people. People who believe in Buddhism consider Buddha as an awakened teacher and his insights help them to overcome the earthly sufferings and hardships through a holly ‘Nirvana’.

Buddhist ideologies and institutions flourished in China since early time. King Asoka, the Great Mauryan emperor played a significant role in growth of Buddhism in China. In China Buddhist ideologies were strongly influenced by Confucianism and Taoism.

Confucianism

Confucianism is the religion of Confucius found in countries like China, Japan, Korea, Japan, Taiwan etc. The word Confucianism means “The School of Scholars”. Confucianism is a way of life taught by Confucius in the 6th–5th century BC. (Confucianism, 2009). Confucianism gives more emphasis on social, moral, political, and religious ideologies. If one analyzes the history of China one can see the deep rooted influence of Confucianism in the social and cultural life of Chinese people.

Shinto

The Shinto religion of Japan is considered, along with Buddhism as the official religion of Japan and is one of the oldest of all the world’s religions. It is unlike other religions in as much as it is basically not a system of beliefs (Shinto religion in Japan, (n.d)). Different studies prove that Shinto was really originated in ancient Japan.

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The ancient Japanese people were believed to be the worshipers of nature and had regarded their land as the first divine creation. Shinto follows the same principle and asserts that they are the only possessors of the divine land.

Taoism

Taoism is a philosophy or way of life that may have been started by a man named Lao Tsu, who lived a little before Confucius; about 600 B.C. (Taoism 2009). Different researches and available historical evidences show that Taoism exhorted to adjust the necessities of life with one’s earnings, to “go with the flow”. (Taoism 2009).

From the view point if Shinto, one is understood that they did not support to get the things done the hard way, but to wait or to find out an easy way to get it fulfilled. Shinto, by following the preaching of Lao Tsu, believes that the universal life-force is present in every living being.

Historical figures and events

Hinduism does not have a clear founder or a specific origin in history. It is formed on the basis of the ‘Santana dharma’ or the eternal law that is capable of controlling everything. The important event that affected Hinduism is the advent of the different religions which necessitated defining “the essentials of Hinduism.” (Klostermaiser)

Historical events and figures in Buddhism

First Buddhists Council (486 BCE), second Buddhist Council (386BCE) Asoka hailed Buddha’s Dharma on a national level. The ideologies of Mahayana Buddhism became popularized in countries like Sumatra, Java, Borneo and Indian immigrants. (272-231 BCE)

Historical events and figures of Taoism

The most important Character is Confucius. Many people believe Confucius is the founder of Taoism. Hang Tzu is another major figure in Taoism. Lao Tsu who lived in 2nd century is also considered as a saint.

Origin of Hermit tradition in China is an important event; and various political and tribal conflicts in China.

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Central beliefs in Hinduism, Buddhism and Taoism

‘The soul is immortal’ is the central belief of Hindus. The ideology of ‘Karma’ is another central belief of all these religions. ‘Nirvana’ and ‘Moksha’ are the basic principles.

References

Hinduism. (2000). My Webastroleger. Web.

Klostermaiser, Klaus K. Hinduism: A short story. Web.

Shinto religion in Japan. (n.d). Asian Art Mall. Web.

Taoism. (2009). kidipede. Web.

V, Jayaram. (2009). Scriptures of Hinduism. Hindu website. Web.

Confucianism. (2009). Religion Facts. Web.

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