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Effects of the French Revolution

Introduction

During the late-eighteen century, colonial North America experienced the changing effect of the American Revolution, which gave birth to the modern nation-state regime. The emergence of the government enabled the attainment of the independence of states and resulted in the adoption of a written constitution, with the creation of a state which would honor equality being the primary consideration. Before the revolution, all the states were ruled under legitimacy principles (Rosenfeld, 2019). This governmental design was based on the idea of the nation-state, with these two main assumptions acting as directives (Kelly, 2015). Before the formation of the administration, there was a need to introduce the needed phenomenon of an amalgamation that occurred in the course of the revolution. The revolt in France put forward nationalism, nation-state ideology, matters about liberal nationalism, the Napoleon reforms, and the idea of conservatism after the defeat of Napoleon, which are the pillars of the current world governorship.

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Nationalism and the Idea of a Nation-State Emerge

The 15th-century intellectual innovations, including capitalism, economy, political geography, and mercantilism, contributed to the formation of this regime. It is argued that the state existed first before the formation of sovereign countries. From a federal land, the nationalist movements were created by the struggle for sovereignty, hence generating the demands for establishing this dominion municipality (Gustavsson, 2019). During this period, the metropolis occurred as an entity, which was created through new policies, structured to help the government quest to modernize and unify an already existing state (Gustavsson, 2019). There is a close connection of the nation-state phenomenon to modern Europe because its operation matured under the governance and facilitation of such developments as a unity which was to be the mandate of participating states. According to Kelly (2015), this government had specific characteristics built on the factors shaping the modern nationality. The entire development, however, contrasted the pre-nation states’ aspirations by creating a need to remain united.

The instruments of coherence encompassed such facets as economy, national unity, and cultural life. The arrangement of public administration transpired in the confines of predecessors because they were not only less diverse but also limited, hence facilitating nationalism (Rosenfeld, 2019). Therefore, the formations of the administration were attained by the influence of economics, political geography, political and mercantilism innovation, which also formed nationalism, before establishing liberal nationalism.

The Liberal Nationalism Stand

Prior to the establishment of the aspects of unity, the liberalism campaign in Europe commenced at the time of the French Revolution. In the context of the philosophy of politics, the term first appeared in the eighteenth century (Gustavsson, 2019). Kelly (2015) alludes that Liberal Nationalism ideas also materialized in the welfare state by ensuring the gap between the theory of politics and psychology on the economic solidarity and national identity narrows. The term, however, stood for economic solidarity and cooperation through which welfare is redistricted. The primary need was to form a strong government, but also to ensure a sense of cohesion. The target of the ideology was the unity of the citizens through fighting for a robust national identity (Gustavsson, 2019). Besides, under the stipulation of liberals, it was necessary to build an inclusive system of governance that would serve minorities and immigrants. It was, therefore, easier to permit uniformity among people who had cultural minorities and varied ethnicity through the system’s unity.

The Reforms Made by Napoleon

The nature of the system itself influenced both France and other European states to experience the governing power of Napoleon, who to some was a hero and a true evil to others. Nevertheless, he was the key individual to control and engage the aspects of the revolution. As a leader, Napoleon managed to make the French central government strong. He succeeded in encouraging industry, controlling prices, and building such infrastructure as canals and roads. Besides, Napoleon employed mechanisms that envisioned his reforms in unique ways. In the law sector, he was able to determine the French’s legal system and changed many rules which were to some extent chaotic and poorly coded (Horne, n.d.). He reformed the administration by centralizing it and chose to put the regime in firm control under his state. In the context of education, the politician built many new lyceums and schools for children aged 10 to 16 (Horne, n.d.). Through education, he was able to support citizens who would fill the positions in his military and bureaucracy realms. Napoleon was a reformist, considering that he wanted his state to be stable in all aspects.

Europe and Conservatism

Napoleon had the privilege of serving his people as much as he could, but some of the points he achieved were not permanent. After the defeat of Napoleon, the state enacted another settlement, which was engineered by Metternich (Horne, n.d.). The aim was to reinstate both the social and political order, which had existed before the revolution. The moment the politician lost his regime, the supporters of the monarchy, including the clergy and the landowners, cooperated to form an alliance. These individuals were widely influential in the rural setting because the region was inhabited by conservative peasants who were not significantly affected by innovations and industrialization (Horne, n.d.). Much worse, the city dwellers continued to be more active than people in the rural areas, a fact which discouraged the conservatives from maintaining their ground. The ultimate repercussion was that conversation aspects decreased instead of increasing.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the late-eighteenth century is in the record as a period for dramatic change, during which the introduction of the nation-states and the revolutionists who wanted the best for their citizens was witnessed. In the process, the idea of state nationalism emerged and formed liberal nationalism, which allowed Napoleon to assume power. Although he implemented various useful reforms, he was subsequently defeated, leaving the conservationists diminishing in their development.

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References

Gustavsson, G. (2019). Liberal national identity: Thinner than conservative, thicker than civic – but in terms of what? Ethnicities, 19(4), 693-711. Web.

Horne, A. (n.d.). The Age of Napoleon. Modern Library.

Kelly, P. (2015). Liberalism and nationalism: Ethnicities. In W. Steven (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Liberalism. Cambridge Companions to Philosophy (pp. 693-711). Sage.

Rosenfeld, S. (2019). The French revolution in cultural history. Journal of Social History, 52(3), 555-565. Web.

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