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Endocrine Disorder: Types and Causes


The endocrine system combines hormone-generating and releasing glands that help control many essential functions of the body, such as the capability to convert nutrients into energy which supplies cells and organs. The endocrine system plays a significant role in determining whether or not the body would develop diabetes, thyroid disease, growth conditions, hormonal imbalances, and various other hormone-associated disorders.

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Causes of Endocrine Disorder

The endocrine disorder is classified into two classes: First, the complication arises when a gland generates more or less of some hormone which is called hormone imbalance (Espirito et al., 2016). Second, the disorder is caused by tumor formation in the endocrine system, which may or may not impair hormone levels.

Where the Disorder Occurs and the Target Organ

Thyroid cancer develops in the thyroid cells, which are found at the base of the neck, below Adam’s Apple. The thyroid releases hormones that regulate heart rate, the temperature in the body, blood pressure, and weight. The disease occurs when the thyroid cells are subjected to a genetic mutation, causing them to expand and multiply rapidly. The cells also lose the capability of dying, just as normal cells would do. The impaired thyroid cells then accumulate and form a tumor (Espirito et al., 2016). The altered cells may invade adjacent tissues and then spread to other parts of the body (metastasize).

Symptoms of Thyroid Cancer

Symptoms of thyroid cancer include enlarged lymph nodes found in the neck, experiencing difficulties when swallowing or sore throat, feeling pain in the neck or throat, the appearance of a lump which is usually felt through the skin of the neck, and an alteration in speech (hoarseness) which can last for weeks.

Possible Medications

Treatment will depend on various factors including the kind of cancer and its level or degree of advancement. However, many differentiated thyroid cancers, papillary carcinomas, including follicular carcinomas, and other medullary thyroid carcinomas, have a fair chance of being cured. They are therefore treated by utilizing the following procedures; First, the removal of the thyroid gland through surgery, whose practice is known as a thyroidectomy. Second, through Radioactive iodine treatment, which is a form of radiotherapy intended to kill any remaining cancerous cells and prevent the re-emergence of the disease (Dansinger, 2019). Third, several thyroid cancers might be treatable by using targeted therapy, which is a new treatment procedure, whereby the infected cells are directly targeted.


Dansinger, M. (2019). Endocrine disorders: Types, causes, symptoms, and treatments. WebMD. Web.

Espirito, S., Sabino, T., Filipe, E., Mario, C., Vasiljevic, A., & Agapito, A. (2016). Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: An underdiagnosed disorder. Endocrine Abstracts, 41, ep643. Web.

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