Voluntary movement patterns
The process of the reflex actions transforming into voluntary movement patterns is a complex issue to examine. The passage from infancy to toddlerhood is evidenced by the acquisition of walking, which is the first “fundamental movement skill” (Dunn and Leitschuh 30). The voluntary movement patterns throughout the first two years of infant development include the following milestones, such as locomotion, rolling over, sitting, crawling, walking, reaching and grasp, and striking. Movement is generally perceived as an essential domain that is observed in infancy. The next childhood period that covers the age of two to six years is another crucial time in the developmental process of a child. The voluntary movement examples that can be traced within this period include locomotion, running, climbing, jumping, hopping, galloping and skipping, throwing, catching, kicking, and striking.
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Achieving the established milestones as subtle indicators promotes monitoring the progress of motor development. However, every child develops in a very individual manner, which is influenced by various factors, such as “inheritance, socioeconomic background, and educational environment” (Dunn and Leitschuh 23). The improved movement performance in childhood is dependent on factors, including maturity, practice, and size modifications. Motor milestones provide the groundwork for the developmental control of children since they represent the most prominent and best-defined indicators of developmental processes to observe by parents and health care specialists. The quality of movement performance is a strong predictor of a child’s later neurological status. The gross motor skills that represent large body movements of the baby develop before the fine motor skills that indicate smaller actions. With that said, motor development activities are vital for infants and toddlers, because physical activity fosters early brain development by developing more neuronal connections.
Dunn, John M., and Carol A. Leitschuh. Special Physical Education. 10th ed., Kendal Hunt Publishing Company, 2015.