The League of Nations is the international organization formed as the result of the Paris Peace Conference, which took place on January 10, 1920. The formation of this organization became the end of World War 1. The League of Nations’ main objective was disarmament, prevention of hostilities, ensuring collective security, settling disputes between countries through diplomatic negotiations, and improving the quality of life on the planet. The League of Nations covenant was signed on June 28, 1919, during the Treaty of Versailles. The Mandatory Territories were the former colonies of the German and Ottoman Empires, taken over by the League after the First World War; it ceased to exist in 1946.
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The Roaring 20s is the era of the 1920s in the USA, Great Britain, Germany, and France. The name characterizes the dynamism of art and the cultural and social life of this period. The era began with the return to peaceful life after the First World War. The roaring twenties’ spirit was perceived by contemporaries as a radical modernization and a break from the traditional values of the Victorian era. Productivity, business, and capacity increased due to “laissez-faire” capitalism dramatically. The late 1920s saw the collapse of the Western economy and the Great Depression.
Margaret Sanger is an American activist and founder of the American League of Birth Control. Sanger opened the first birth control clinic in the United States and founded the International Family Planning Association. She was an active supporter and advocate of contraception, negative eugenics, and ideas of birth control. Sanger contributed to the landmark U.S. Supreme Court litigation that legalized contraception in the United States. In New York, Sanger opened the first birth control clinic with female doctors of all specialties and a clinic in Harlem, which was staffed entirely by African Americans. She wanted to limit the number of African Americans who participated in the Ku Klux Klan. Sanger proposed to tackle eugenics problems through strict immigration policies, free use of birth control methods, complete family planning rights for the free-minded, and mandatory segregation or sterilization for the mentally disabled. Sanger also believed that people in poor areas should be subject to natural selection. She assumed that the light-skinned race was superior to the “colored” races, offering forced sterilization for those deemed unfit for reproduction. More than 60 million babies were not born because they were aborted legally since 1973 under the program of Margaret Sanger. She opened a clinic staffed by African American doctors. The clinic was advertised in the African American press and churches. Sanger recruited several black priests who traveled throughout the country to preach birth control among African Americans
Alice Paul is an American suffragette and activist. Paul and her colleagues formed the National Woman’s Party (NWP) in 1916, where they introduced methods used by the suffrage movement in Great Britain. The strategy of NWP to achieve the law regarding woman rights included demonstrations, parades, mass rallies, pickets, and hunger strikes. In January 1917, the NWP held its first picket outside the White House. The picketers, known as the “silent guards”, held banners demanding the right to vote. It was an example of a nonviolent civil disobedience campaign. In July 1917, the picketers were arrested on charges of “obstructing traffic”. Many, including Alice Paul, were found guilty and incarcerated at Oakcoquen Prison, Virginia. In protest, Paul went on a hunger strike in prison, where she was later transferred to the hospital’s psychiatric ward. This, combined with the ongoing demonstrations and accompanying press coverage, put pressure on the Wilson administration. In January 1918, Wilson announced that women’s suffrage was a necessary measure. In 1920, the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was passed. Woodrow Wilson used to be against giving women the right to vote, and getting the education and professional path that confronted his “defending democracy abroad in WWI.”