Research Problem and Purpose
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between “exercise stage and decisional balance in overweight and obese people seeking advanced practice nurse (APN) care” (Smith, Griffin, & Fitzpatrick, 2011, p. 92).
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This study highlighted that no studies have focused on obese and overweight individuals interested in “primary care from advanced practice nurses (APNs) in independent APN practice” (Smith et al., 2011, p. 92).
A literature review was conducted to support the study and provide available knowledge on the subject. Past studies provided information on obesity and its devastating effects, including costs of medical care, hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and death (Smith et al., 2011).
The study has also recognized that there is well-documented literature about the effects of exercise regimens on reducing obesity and related negative impacts. It however observes that the rate for engagement in exercise has remained poor.
A conceptual framework for this study was based on the Transtheoretical Model (TTM), which contains the “conceptualization of behavioral change through a five-stage development” (Smith et al., 2011, p. 94).
As major aspects, the framework accounts for self-efficacy, the decision, and stages of change. Individuals must show the plan to change and then act. Thus, one should express the intention to exercise and maintain an exercise regimen.
Research Objectives, Questions, or Hypothesis
The objective of this descriptive correlational study was to assess the link between exercise stage and decision in overweight and obese individuals who were interested in primary care from APNs.
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Therefore, APNs should formulate a method of providing support and promote behavioral change among obese and overweight individuals.
These variables included age; gender; marital status; children in the family; educational level, employment status; and household income, which were presented as characteristics of the sample. Besides, other variables included exercise stage, exercise description for pace exercise, BMI, and the medical reason that prevents exercise.
Obesity is a growing health concern and can be prevented through exercise regimens. Individuals can initiate change and transform their behaviors to embrace exercise. An increase in the rate of exercise will yield favorable outcomes. Thus, perceived benefits become apparent when individuals increase the rate of exercise.
The study sampling method was convenient and therefore it restricted the generalization of the findings. However, the advanced practice nurse (APN) owned and operated clinics were generally smaller relative to other FQHC clinics. In this regard, the major obstacle is getting an adequate sample at the study settings and a convenience sample was preferred instead of a random sample.
The study design was a cross-sectional descriptive. It was done in two areas in the Pacific Northwest facilities that belonged and managed by four APNs. All APNs were family nurse practitioners (FNPs). The state that hosts these facilities allows nurse practitioners to have independent practice rights and prescriptive ability.
Population and Sample
The researchers used a convenience sample in this study. The researchers choose this sampling technique because of its convenience in accessibility since all participants could be found at the clinics. The population of the study consisted of 183 patients who were receiving care in the clinics. Research respondents consisted of men and women who were aged over 40 years and had BMIs that exceeded 25. These two factors were considered as inclusion criteria because they captured the significant risk elements noted in the public.
The researchers excluded eight participants, including the other five participants with low BMIs of 25.1 while additional three participants did not take part in the study because of less age limit of 40 years.
Finally, a sample of 175 participants who were obese, overweight, and over 40 years took part in the study.
Methods of Measurement
The Exercise Stage Assessment was chosen as a measurement method for the study. The study questionnaire accounted for measures that captured the participants’ “current state of exercise during leisure time” (Smith et al., 2011, 95). In this measure, regular exercise was an intended activity to enhance physical fitness.
Measurement reliability was based on the TTM with an “exercise stage questionnaire developed with a kappa index of.78” (Smith et al., 2011, 95).
This research aimed to collect quantitative responses from past used questionnaires.
The researchers created a demographic questionnaire as a data collection instrument or tool. Three different types of questionnaires were used, including Exercise Stage, the PACE Questionnaire, and the Decisional Balance Questionnaire.
Descriptive statistics were used for analyses. Besides, the researchers also used Pearson’s product-moment correlations for analyses.
Many research participants demonstrated that the benefits of exercise outweighed the drawbacks and therefore were most likely to engage in an exercise regimen. The study outcomes showed that obesity was a serious condition but preventable. In this case, exercise was the best approach to curb obesity and overweight.
Nursing practices should concentrate on overweight and obese individuals, but such practices should be supported by nursing further studies and education (Smith et al., 2011). Specifically, the study demonstrated that APN practice, research, and education must collaborate to tackle obesity and overweight as a growing public health problem. APNs were in the best position to promote the required changes.
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Smith, D. W., Griffin, Q., & Fitzpatrick, J. (2011). Exercise and exercise intentions among obese and overweight individuals. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 23(2), 92–100. Web.