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Finding Credible Information: Annotated Bibliography

Allcott, Hunt et al. “Trends in the Diffusion of Misinformation on Social Media.” Research & Politics, vol. 6, no. 2, 2019, pp. 1–8. doi:10.1177/2053168019848554.

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The article is based on a study conducted by three researchers who investigated the topic of the trends in the spread of misinformation on social media. The authors argue, relying on the data they received, that at the end of 2016, there was an increase in the volume of false information content on Facebook and Twitter. Since that period, misinformation on the former has decreased, while it has grown steadily on the latter. The authors believe that this unexpected change on Facebook can be explained by the implementation of the new tools which address the problem of false information. The point of the article is to demonstrate the developments concerning misinformation which take place on social media.

This source is especially useful since it provides actual data on the topic of misinformation on social media and shows the changes which occur in this realm. This research article was published in the peer-reviewed journal Research & Politics, which indicates its credibility and, compared to the bibliography sources published on the news websites, it has been written by scholars. The source is objective and presents reliable information which was received as the result of professional research. The goal of the article is to show how misinformation changes over time on different social media platforms and attempt to explain why it happens.

This article is helpful for the research because it can be used as the source for concrete evidence on the trends concerning the spread of false narratives on social media. It also allows to state that misinformation on certain platforms continues to grow, which once again shows the scope of the problem. Moreover, it can provide an additional basis for the argument that social media are not only responsible for providing an environment for false information but also possess the means to counter it.

Bridgman, Aengus et al. “The Causes and Consequences of COVID-19 Misperceptions: Understanding the Role of News and Social Media.” The Harvard Kennedy School (HKS) Misinformation Review, 18 Jun. 2020.

The article talks about the findings of a study conducted by a group of researchers on the topic of misinformation about COVID-19 on social media and news media. The authors state that false information was more common on Twitter compared to the traditional news sources. The authors of the article suggest that higher social media exposure is associated with more frequent misconceptions about the current pandemic. The misinformation on social media has also been found to be linked to misperceptions about the new coronavirus, which, as a result, leads to a decrease in compliance with the social distancing guidelines.

This source is especially useful since it demonstrates a direct link between social media and the spread of false information. Compared to other sources in the bibliography, it also bears significance since it is based on scientific research conducted by professionals. The information presented in the article is reliable because it has been published in the peer-reviewed journal Harvard Kennedy School Misinformation Review. The article is objective since it reflects the current situation in the country and presents evidence in the form of tables and numbers which support its arguments. The goal of the article is to show that social media users are more prone to receiving misinformation than those who choose traditional news media.

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This source will be helpful for writing the research paper since it points to the fact that social media are largely responsible for the perpetuation of misinformation. It also shows that false narratives published on social media can have a direct effect on the lives of people, for example, they become less likely to observe the social distancing rules. It has reinforced my view of the problem and can help me prove that social media websites such as Twitter play a major role in promoting false information.

Gallaher, Ryan. “China’s Disinformation Effort Targets Virus, Researcher Says.” Bloomberg, 13 May 2020.

The article focuses on the topic of public disinformation campaigns on social media allegedly carried out by Chinese government agencies. The author argues that a network of fake accounts shared various conspiracy theories about the COVID-19 pandemic and false information concerning biosecurity incidents taking place in the U.S. These accounts also posted criticism of Hong Kong protests and disparaged a Chinese businessman who had to flee the country due to his disapproval of the government’s actions. The article aims to demonstrate that social media platforms can be used by special-interest entities as the ground for launching misinformation attacks against different nations and individuals.

The source is useful because it highlights another facet of the problem of misinformation on social media, namely the organized disinformation campaigns. In comparison to other sources in the bibliography, the article is not peer-reviewed, yet it is published on Bloomberg’s website, one of the most trustworthy sources online. The credibility of the source is supported by the references to investigations and researches on the topic and social media’s official statements. The article is objective since it presents different points of view, including the one voiced by the Chinese government. The goal of the article is to show users of social media platforms are not safe from misinformation.

The article will be helpful for the research since it allows to infer that misinformation on social media can be generated not only by individual users but also by larger organizations with the intent to deceive. The article has broadened my understanding of the problem and made me realize that some entireties can take advantage of the issue of misinformation online. The source will contribute significantly to the argument concerning the role of social media as the environment most conducive to the spread of incorrect information and influencing public opinion.

Hirsh, Jesse. “Why Social Platforms Are Taking Some Responsibility for Content.” Centre for International Governance Innovation, 11 Sep. 2019.

The article aims at exploring the topic of social media’s responses to instances of misinformation on their platforms. The author argues that the actions of sites such as Facebook to target false information and the governments’ proposals to establish control over the platforms’ power to do so should not violate the democratic principles. The article also presents examples of how social media attempt to deal with misinformation, employing the help of moderators or even restricting the search function. The author shows that popular social media sites recognize the problem of misinformation and try to address it by developing different methods and strategies.

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The source is useful for the research because it contains a lot of facts and relies on information from other trusted websites such as and Comparing it to other sources in the bibliography, it should be noted that it is not peer-reviewed, yet it still contains reliable information for which the author provides the original sources. The article objective because the writer does not attempt to influence the reader and instead simply describes the current state of affairs. The goal of the source is to provide the reader with an account of the topical situation concerning misinformation on social media.

This article is helpful for my research since it lists examples of how social media tried to counter the issue of misinformation. It can help arrange the argument concerning the role of social media in the dissemination of false information. It provides concrete facts which demonstrate that the platforms recognize this problem as important and persistent and are ready to use various tools to address it. The article did not change my previous perception of the topic and presented additional materials to support my main point of view that social media are responsible for amplifying misinformation.

Ng, Alfred. “With Coronavirus Hoaxes Flooding Social Media, Governments Scramble to Fight Misinformation.” CNET, 16 Mar. 2020.

The article explores the topic of responses of various governmental bodies and officials to the instances of misinformation on social media during the COVID-19 pandemic. The author says that to fight inaccurate information widely shared by different users online, governments had to officially refute it employing the method of posting their statements on social media. The author argues that the circumstances of the global pandemic further exacerbated the issue of false information on social media to the point when the officials had to interfere. The point of the article is to stress the fact that the aforementioned problem has reached the level where it has been recognized by the government.

This source is useful since it highlights the role of the officials in addressing misinformation on social media platforms. Compared to other sources, it is not peer-reviewed, but it is still credible because it was published on the CNET’s website, one of the leading resources dedicated to the technology news. The information presented in the article is reliable since the author references all the original sources, which also eliminates any potential bias since all the opinions on the topic are presented. The goal of the article is to demonstrate how government officials react to false information shared on social media.

This article will be most helpful for the research because it provides information about the way the government chooses to deal with misinformation online. It also helps understand the scope of the problem since it is now acknowledged by the officials, which indicates the persistence of this issue. By addressing the false information on social media, government agencies reinforce the systemic status of the problem. The article supports the argument that social media are ideal for spreading misinformation and that even the governments recognize it by attempting to disprove it.

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"Finding Credible Information: Annotated Bibliography." StudyCorgi, 25 Dec. 2020,

1. StudyCorgi. "Finding Credible Information: Annotated Bibliography." December 25, 2020.


StudyCorgi. "Finding Credible Information: Annotated Bibliography." December 25, 2020.


StudyCorgi. 2020. "Finding Credible Information: Annotated Bibliography." December 25, 2020.


StudyCorgi. (2020) 'Finding Credible Information: Annotated Bibliography'. 25 December.

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