After the conclusion (end) of the Seven Years War in 1763, British, facing no immediate threat from the French turned her interest to the colonies (Pauline 16). British had accumulated enormous defence expenses during the wars and as such needed to collect revenue from the colonies in order to offset them (Pauline 43).
As a consequence British administration started enforcing the Navigational Acts strictly. These Acts restricted colonial trade with other nations (Pauline 43). Strict application of these Acts was an attempt to control colonial legislatives.
American’s anger was aroused by the passing of the Sugar Act and subsequent Currency Act. The former sought to raise American money for the Crown through increased taxation of imported merchandise from non British colonies, while the latter forbade colonies from printing their own money (Pauline 67). This move was opposed by the colonies as they decried unanimously against taxation without representation.
Protests followed as well as boycotts of British merchandises (Pauline 71). Americans were also angered by the passing of the Quartering Act in 1765 that required the colonies to provide lodging and supplies for British troops (Pauline 73). New York being the headquarters of British troops responded by dishonoring the Act, and a scuffle ensued injuring one colonist.
Whereas many events led to American Revolution, however the most crucial ones were the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party as well as The Stamp Act. As a result of the passing the Tea Act in 1773 British East India company was allowed to sell tea directly to the colonist, by passing the colonists middlemen (Pauline 97).
This meant that the firm could undersell any other tea found in the colonies including smuggled tea (Ibid 97). Such acts rekindled colonial fury on the issue of taxation without representation.
There was clamour for removal of tax on tea by the colonists. Subsequently citizens of Boston would not allow for the unloading of British ships that had docked on the habour carrying tons of tea. On the other hand the governor of Massachusetts insisted on payment of duty (Pauline 99).
This stalemate led to what was referred to as Boston Tea Party – an event in which groups of Bostonians under the directions of Samuel Adams and in disguise of Indians, boarded the vessels and unloaded the tea in Boston harbor (Pauline 105).
British responded by closing the port. These acts of the British coupled with the tea issue aroused the Boston’s anger to repulse. American Revolution was also triggered by the Boston massacre (Pauline 114). This was a confrontation between British troops and Boston citizens in the Massachusetts Bay colony. British troops had been stationed in the city to counter demonstrations probable as against the Town sheds Acts.
The Town sheds Acts required taxation of imports to the colonies. Due to harassment by the demonstrating citizens, British troops responded by firing into the crowd killing five of them (Pauline 117). This incident fueled anti-British sentiment in the colonies. After the incident the sons of liberty were more and more agitated by the soldiers and they were not going to allow such instances any more (Pauline 117-118).
The colonies’ failure to be represented in the passing of the Stamps Act was also crucial in advancing the Revolution bell. This Act required tax stamp upon all legal documents, licences, commercial contracts, newspapers, pamphlets and playing cards (Pauline 120). This Bill having been passed without debate and representation of the colonies aroused widespread opposition from the colonists.
In summary, whereas American Revolution was due to many events however the most crucial ones were the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party as well as the Stamp Act. The American Revolution crucially being the greatest movement in human history was responsible for the birth of federal government and an independent one indeed.
Pauline Maier, From Resistance to Revolution: Colonial Radicals and the Development of American Opposition to Britain, 1765-1776 (1972)