HIV/AIDS and Safe Sex Behaviors in India | Free Essay Example

HIV/AIDS and Safe Sex Behaviors in India

Words: 752
Topic: Health & Medicine


This article is devoted to the problem of HIV and AIDS in India. In our days, the problem attracts national and international priority, as the rate of spreading the disease has been increased. “National HIV prevention campaigns focus on messages ap­pealing to individuals to adopt safe sexual behaviors” (Sivaram et al., 2006, p. 125). Generally, special investigations have shown that in most cases, men do not accept safe sex behaviors and prefer to neglect physical barriers. Social and gender norms, in their turn, also support having multiple sexual partners. To prevent the spreading of sexually transmitted diseases, various new approaches and programs are to be developed.

Null and alternative hypothesis

There is a need to point out that one of the most effective ways to prevent HIV and AIDS transmitting is considered to be condom use. At the same time, special education programs concerning HIV prevention are to be created. Literacy campaigns on learning the basics of HIV and AIDS should also be developed, as the lower middle class in India must be informed about the consequences that sexually transmitted diseases can bring about.

On the other hand, publicity media seems to be not enough to lower the rates of HIV and AIDS transmitting; all the means, which can be developed to prevent transmitting the diseases, are to be used simultaneously, like “HIV/AIDS control programs, however, well planned and designed at the central level remains ineffective, unless they reach out where people live, work, study and access health and other welfare services including information services” (“National Aids Prevention and Control Policy,” 2003, p. 8).

Sampling procedures

The research is based on questionnaires. Thus, a baseline assessment “was conducted with 3 follow-up assessments at 5- to 6-month intervals over 16 months. Follow-up rates were similar in the intervention and the control communities at each wave from the baseline interviews (n = 100 each condition)” (Basu et al., 2004, p. 847). When speaking about the intervention community, it is necessary to point out that 84% were interviewed, while in the control community, there were 75% assessed.

Independent and Dependent Variables

When speaking about independent and dependent variables of the study, it should be pointed out that age, level of education, wealth index, marital status, location (urban/rural), religion (Hindu, Muslim, Jewish, etc.), and state are considered to be independent variables.

When speaking about dependent variables, it is more convenient to express them in the following way: CU (condom use), EMS (extramarital sex), ABT (time in months in last sex), VIR (virginity status), FS (first sex), EHA (general knowledge about STD), HLP (specific knowledge about STD), VEG (HIV/AIDS stigma).

Alpha level

There is also a certain dependence between depression and HIV infected women.

“Women were asked to indicate how often they experienced a variety of psychological symptoms during the past week, on a 4-point Likert scale from (0=less than 1 day, 1=1-2 days, 2=3-4 days, 3=5-7 days)” (“Factors Influencing Reproductive Choices of HIV Infected Women in India,” n.d., p. 7). So, the score ranged from 0 to 60. Cronbach’s alpha level was 0.88.


Relying on the investigation, it became obvious that “condom use is increasing in education and wealth for all males. That is, a male with higher education is 10.45% more likely to use a condom than a male with no education” (Araujo, 2008, p. 8). For this reason, the assumption that all the means to prevent HIV/AIDS spreading are to be used simultaneously seems to work. Thus, education programs and literacy campaigns on learning the basics of HIV (especially for the lower middle class in India) are to be developed and constantly improved.

The questions to the researcher

  1. How (or in what way) does religion (an independent variable) influence the sexual behavior of the Indians?
  2. What is the difference between EHA and HLP, and in what way this difference determines people’s sexual behavior?

My own independent/dependent variables in relation to the research

If I had an opportunity to design my own study about this topic, I would probably include such independent variables as gender, people’s living conditions, and their medical history. When speaking about dependent variables, I would probably include people’s attitude towards the STD, the conditions sex takes place (for instance, people can have sex after alcohol use, or if they are depressed, etc.), medical institution frequency (in general and if unsafe sex takes place).

My expectations

I suppose that my own research could show what categories of people are to be educated and informed about HIV/AIDS on a priority basis.


Araujo, P. (2008). Socio-Economic Status, HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Stigma, and Sexual Behavior in India. Indiana University Bloomington, 1-28. Web.

Basu I., Jana, S., Rotheram-Borus, M., Swendeman, D., Lee, S., Newman, P., & Weiss, R. (2004). HIV Prevention Among Sex Workers in India. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 36 (3), 845-852. Web.

Factors Influencing Reproductive Choices of HIV Infected Women in India. (n.d.). Web.

National Aids Prevention and Control Policy. (2005). Web.

Sivaram S., Latkin, C., Solomon, S., & Celentano, D. (2006). HIV Prevention in India: Focus on Men, Alcohol Use and Social Networks. Harvard Health Policy Review, 7 (2), 125-134. Web.