The social sphere of services is relatively extensive and multifaceted, but it is imperative and necessary today. The main goals and objectives of this area are to provide services and forms of assistance. It can be found everywhere in the district – from public places to working and life moments. The work sheds light on the origin and the historical elements of the emergence and development of the human services field.
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The human services field began to appear in the ancient world between 3000-4000 BC and the V century AD. It was determined by society’s need to provide assistance and support to people who do not have the opportunity to produce material goods. The rudiments of the division of labor were already present even though economic practice existed in the simplest forms, and there were no activities related to the provision of services.
Each member of the family, organization, and society participated either in self-service or in collective work. Only then, status positions and social roles begin to change, which led to the differentiation of human relations and creating a hierarchy, but at the same time corrected the diversity of individual qualities of people. There were the leaders – chiefs, as well as their servants – shamans and priests who participated in the production of social services. At later historical stages, more complex economic occupations began to exist, there were status roles with considerable functional significance. In addition, the role of creators of artistic values has increased. Thus, during this period, elements of the modern concept of the service sector were already carried out.
Traditions and customs dictated the development and emergence of new types of economic activity. In ancient society, many important and useful services were formed in various spheres of life; the economy developed extensively. Handicraft production, trade, money circulation, a professional army, judges, transport, science, art, education, as well as other types of services to meet personal needs appeared. There are many occupations related to the craft, with work requiring highly qualified training, the role in the division of labor is increasing. Moreover, economic practice and social ties in the ancient world developed thanks to various services.
In ancient times, the types of activities that contributed to the dynamic development of society – art, science, and philosophical thought began to emerge. These activities focused primarily on developing human thinking, on the opportunity to open new facets for the study of nature and the world as a whole.
In the Middle Ages of the V-XV centuries, during the human services field development, financial and social mechanisms were developed that are directly related to forming a new type of economy and services. The trend of studying art and mastering scientific and philosophical thought continues to deepen. Eastern cultures dominate in this period; they represented social development with slow dynamics and did not allow innovative breakthroughs in various spheres of public life.
In Modern times, since the XVII century, there have been significant changes in economic and labor relations, in people’s worldview, and the spiritual activity of the whole society. Professional and corporate relations in trade have acquired a perfect form. The financial services sector is developing, manufacturing production, banks, and credit and financial institutions are emerging. The economy of Western countries is developing briskly, primarily due to the improved trade system, despite its secondary importance.
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The employees did not have sufficient qualifications necessary to work in the service sector. Some people believed that working in this field does not increase social wealth. Western European civilization began to activate new social development factors – technology, industrial production, and science-forming a new industrial society. The most critical link of the modern service sector is beginning to take shape: ‘service producers – consumers.’
In the XX century, there has been a qualitative change in the development of the service sector. So, material production depended on the development of the service. The era of industrialization gave an impetus to the redistribution of resources in the world economy. Most of the resources were concentrated on the most prominent industries and the credit and banking sector (Cuadrado-Roura, 2016). The share of the urban population is growing, new professions related to the products of scientific and technological progress are emerging. In an industrial-type society, the diversity of layers and groups with different needs increases, which, in turn, expands the possibility of new types of services.
The service sector begins to generate new socio-cultural needs and thereby increase consumption in the market. Services are closely intertwined with new technologies of industrial production and are included in people’s daily lives.
The process of post-industrialization is characterized by a rapid increase in the share of the tertiary sector in the economy. Knowledge and labor are considered to be the leading production resource in a post-industrial society. The structure of production and consumption is changing; services began to have a dominant position and tended to further growth. The process of serving the economy begins; people’s level of education grows, ensuring high qualifications and higher wages.
To sum up, the development of the human services field originated in the ancient world, and over time, it was improved, modified, and transformed. The development of this sphere was influenced by such crucial historical moments as the need for the division of labor and roles, the formation of new values, rules, and traditions. New needs began to appear, which required immediate solutions, and the emergence of new professions to meet them. Therefore, social and cultural growth, the establishment of relations in trade, globalization, industrialization gave an impetus to the development of activities in the service sector.
Cuadrado-Roura, J. R. (2016). Service industries and regional analysis. New directions and challenges. Investigaciones Regionales – Journal of Regional Research, 36, 107-127. Web.