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Impact of Diversity on Health and Social Care Provision

Abstract

Numerous studies have indicated that many patients are dissatisfied with most of the services that are offered by healthcare organizations. It is evident that many of such services are partly due to issues that pertain to favoritism. Such complaints can be curbed through the implementation of appropriate approaches to clinical services that are based on equality, diversity inclusion, and social centeredness. The inclusion of diversity in any organizational system entails treating all people equally through the enhancement of positive values. This proposal provides an evaluation of the impact of diversity on health and social care provision.

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Background of the Study

The proposal focuses on a study that will seek to evaluate the impact of diversity on health and social care provision. Numerous researchers have attempted to investigate the importance of diversity in healthcare organizations. However, detailed information on the outcomes of such activities has not been analyzed adequately (Whitehead 438). A number of healthcare providers are reluctant to consider diversity in day-to-day operations. Various evaluations of the diversity issue in health and social care have revealed that there is a need for conducting research that is more detailed. This information will enable diversification of employment and unprejudiced distribution of resources with a view of improving the provision of healthcare and social services.

Statement of the Problem and Research Purpose

Many healthcare sectors have failed to tackle issues pertaining to diversity. A few other health organizations allege to have been considering diversity in terms of health care provision and employment. A better understanding of diversity in social and health institutions involves the inclusion of factors such as individual characters, preferences, and group features among others (Munn-Giddings & Winter 12). Research that was conducted to investigate the impacts of diversity on health and social provision in the USA indicated that the majority of the women languish in low-income occupations regardless of various laws that have been enacted to curb the situation (Cohen, Gabriel, & Terrell 96). Although the blacks and other marginalized groups are assigned duties in medical sections, they are significantly underrepresented in matters concerning consultancy (Johnson & Tripp-Reimer 18).

Based on this information, it is evident that healthcare organizations sectors have failed to treat employment based on diversity and equality. As a result, there is a need to seek information that is more elaborate. Various issues that should be addressed pertain to prejudice in aspects such as employment, gender, ethnicity, racism, age, and class among others (Gilson 1456).

Most health and social care systems base their achievements on diversity and equity. However, these organisations do not provide information about the positive outcomes of such actions. According to Scott, Mannion, Davies, and Marwill gender discrimination has denied men and women equal opportunities in the workplace (115). Countries such as the UK have established various employment policies in their health care systems. Such policies address issues that pertain to diversity and fairness. However, do the hospitals have a true reflection of such policies? (Lopez‐Casasnovas, Costa‐Font, & Planas 226).

Many benefits accompany the respect for diversity in healthcare systems. At the outset, diversity brings about inclusion whereby everyone is allowed to participate in service delivery. As a result, time wastage is significantly minimised. Secondly, there is promotion of a healthier and happier atmosphere among the patients, staff, and other stakeholders when diversity and equality are put in practice. In addition, diversity promotes freedom whilst minimising discrimination amongst staff; hence, individual preferences and needs are easily met (Porter & Kramer 80). Diversity can be promoted through individual empowerment in the health sectors. This situation can be enhanced through the formation of discussion groups with a view of presenting relevant issues that pertain to diversity in public meetings (Porter & Kramer 80). These activities are rarely implemented in the health and social care sectors. Furthermore, there is inadequate information that advocates diversity in healthcare.

Due to unclear and/or inadequate information concerning diversity, there is a need to assess healthcare institution to establish the cause-effect relationships amongst people of different colour, race, age, and gender among others in healthcare settings. This research aims at evaluating the impacts of diversity on health and social care provisions. The information that will be obtained from this study will assist in the formulation of sound employment and service delivery plans in health care and social institutions.

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Research question

Does diversity lead to positive impacts on health and social provisions?

Aim of the study

The study aims at enlightening the public on the services that are delivered in health and social settings based on diversity.

Objectives of the study

Various objectives of the study are listed below.

Main Objective

To investigate whether diversity is applied in the delivery of service in health and social sectors.

Other Objectives

  1. To highlight various criteria that is used for diversity inclusion in service delivery in health and social sectors.
  2. To evaluate various impacts of diversity on health and social care provisions.

Theoretical Framework and Hypothesis

Theoretical Framework

The research framework will be arrived at by analysing the diversity of services in health and social sectors.

Two hypotheses were generated.

  • H0: Practicing diversity in service delivery in health and social service sectors does not lead to positive service outcomes such as good services among others.
  • H1: Practicing diversity in service delivery in health and social service sectors leads to positive service outcomes such as good services among others.

Variables

The various variables that are to be measured include the independent variables such as diversity. The dependent variable will entail the positive outcomes such as good services among others.

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Rationale for the selection of the Topic and Time Frame

The topic ‘Impacts of Diversity on Health and Social Care Provision’ was selected with a view of seeking deep understanding of various criteria to promote service delivery in health and social settings. This research will be conducted between the months of April and May 2015 in Maryland, USA.

The available resources that support the success of this research include sufficient finances, time, and secondary sources of information concerning the topic.

Role of Ethical Codes and Ethics Committee in the Research

The ethical committee will ensure that the ethical codes of conduct are followed to guarantee honesty in issues concerning procedures, data, and presentation of results among others (Guillemin and Gillam 272). The code will also guide the objectives of the study to minimise biasness that can arise due to design, analysis, and interpretation of data among others. Integrity will also be enhanced to avoid negligence that can cause errors (Flick 32). Issues of confidentiality concerning the respondent, researchers, and their assistants will be taken into account. Other matters that will be addressed include legality of the research through the acquisition of permission from the relevant authorities.

Literature review

Diversity

Health sectors have been advocating a rise in the diversification to bring about quality, different cultures, and equity among other considerations with a view of curbing the discrimination problems (Vertovec 1030). According to Spector and Spector (260), diversity entails the understanding of various groups or individuals and their characters. It also entails appreciation and respect for the ethnicity, gender, age, disability, education, and religion of a person among others (Spector & Spector 260). Most organizations do not consider the positive impacts of diversity on health and social care provisions. Although some health sectors implement diversity inclusion in employment and service delivery, such cases have dwindled due to poor leadership and mismanagement of resources (Spector & Spector 260).

Health Care and Diversity

Cases of racism and ethnicity in healthcare organizations, especially in Los Angeles and California among other towns in the USA have tremendously increased in the recent years. This situation has led to an increment in the heterogenic type of population who seek employment and services from various health and social service centres. Services in these sectors must be based on diversity and inclusion with respect to ethnicity, gender, and equality among others. However, there is a need to lay down apt policies to govern matters concerning diversity in the workplace with a view of curtailing the possible negative impacts on health and social care delivery (Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality 14).

A healthcare provider who has been subjected to situations where bullying and unequal treatment are rampant is likely to develop stress conditions that result in mental problems. This situation further lowers the dignity and value of such an individual; hence, self-motivation and esteem deteriorate. Eventually, poor performance becomes inevitable (Andresen 110).

Diversity and Workforce

Diversity and inclusion has increasingly become an issue of great concern in the USA due prejudicing factors such as gender, ethnicity, and race among others. Nonetheless, a large percentage of the minority group is still underrepresented in the health and social care settings (Gaskin & Hoffman 90). The workforce is rapidly changing in the healthcare sectors due to increased education among women than men. Currently, most women graduate from being baby boomers to hardworking and higher achievers in life (Haddad & Brown 20). It is approximated that he healthcare and social service systems will experience changes that entail diversity forms such as competencies based on culture and experience. There is a need to execute change in terms of criteria of employment and service provision that are in tandem with diversity.

Diversity and Inclusion in Health Sectors

Inclusion involves supporting and valuing individuals, especially in the workplace. This situation improves skills among individuals through teamwork and interactions. Diversity without inclusion is chaotic and can lead to a rise in conflicts due to lack of respect (Jackson 20). Advocating different perceptions of individuals boosts productivity and innovation about an issue in the health care system. Health sectors are supposed to enhance practice of diversity in delivery of services (Johnson & Tripp 17).

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Methodology

Research design and Sampling plan

The research will be based on qualitative research design (Sugiyono 23). It will be conducted in Maryland in the USA. The data to be analysed will be derived from questionnaires that will be administered to respondents such as nurses, doctors, public, social service workers, and patients among other stakeholders (Bryman 65).

Instrument

The questionnaire instrument will be used to collect data from the respondents. The questionnaire will contain demographic information, closed and open ended questions as well as multiple-choice questions. The questionnaire will be written in simple English for easy comprehension (Cooper & Emory 115).

Sample and Sampling strategy

The sample size to be selected will be 300 in total. Doctors to be included will be 5 nurses will be 150, health care providers and social service workers will be 50, the public will be 55 and the patients will be 40. Quasi-sampling method will be used to select doctors, nurses, and patients, social and health care workers while the public will be randomly selected. The subjects will then be issued with questionnaires to fill after which the questionnaires will be collected (Marwill 523).

Rationale for the selection area

Maryland was selected as the study site since this place has numerous social and health care services that are funded by federal as well as state governments (Coyne 76). There are also various social service centres in this region that majorly insure children on health cover thus getting many subjects to be included in the research will be appropriate. The sampling design chosen also favours the qualitative research to be carried out (Marwill 523).

Data collection procedures

A pre-visit to the study site will be conducted to ensure familiarity. Permission will also be requested from the relevant authorities from both the school and the area to enable successful research to be carried out (Sugiyono 25). The questionnaires will be randomly distributed to the subjects in public places, hospitals, social work places as well as meeting the subjects face-to-face.

Validity and reliability

A Pearson Moment Correlation will be used to verify validity and reliability. According to the correlation, 0.5 mark will be used as the cut point for the correlation thus R-values that will be above 0.5 will be accepted (Cooper & Emory 123).

The reliability of the instrument will be measured using the Cronbach’s Alpha at 0.5. Positive Correlation value-r and Cronbach’s Alpha that will be above the 0.5 cut point will be reliable to be included (Hair et al. 35).

Table1: Information on Validity and Reliability test of the questionnaire

No. Variables Total correlation Cronbach’s α Illustration
Diversity (x) Valid
Positive impacts like good service (y) Reliable

References

Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality 2004, National healthcare disparities report, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD.

Andresen, J 2001, ‘Cultural competence and health care: Japanese, Korean, and Indian patients in the United States’, Journal of Cultural Diversity, vol. 8 no. 4, pp. 109-21.

Bryman, A 2012, Social research methods, Oxford University Press, United Kingdom.

Cohen, J, Gabriel, B & Terrell, C 2002, ‘The case for diversity in the health care workforce’, Health Affairs, vol. 21 no. 5, pp. 90-102.

Cooper, D & Emory, D 2002, Business Research Methods, Richard D. Irwin, Chicago.

Coyne, I 1997, ‘Sampling in qualitative research. Purposeful and theoretical sampling; merging or clear boundaries’, Journal of advanced nursing, vol. 26 no. 3, pp. 623-630.

Flick, U 2009, An Introduction to Qualitative Research, Sage, Thousand Oaks, California.

Gaskin, D & Hoffman, C 2000, ‘Racial and ethnic differences in preventable hospitalisations across 10 states’, Medical Care Research Review, vol. 57 no. 1, pp. 85-107.

Gilson, L 2003, ‘Trust and the development of health care as a social institution’, Social science & medicine, vol. 56 no. 7, pp. 1453-68.

Guillemin, M & Gillam, L 2004, ‘Ethics, reflexivity, and “ethically important moments” in research’, Qualitative inquiry, vol. 10 no. 2, pp. 261-80.

Haddad, A & Brown, K 1994, ‘Ethics in action: What would you do? Cultural issues on end-of-life decisions’, RN, vol. 57 no. 7, pp. 19-21.

Hair, J, Yoseph, F, Rolph, E, Anderson, R & Black, W 1998, Multivariate Data Analysis, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, NJ.

Jackson, V 2002, ‘Cultural Competency Behavioural’, Health Management, vol. 22 no. 2, pp. 20.

Johnson, R & Tripp-Reimer, T 2001, ‘Aging, ethnicity, & social support: A review’, Journal of Gerontological Nursing, vol. 27 no. 6, pp. 15-21.

Lopez‐Casasnovas, G, Costa‐Font, J & Planas, I 2005, ‘Diversity and regional inequalities in the Spanish ‘system of health care services’, Health Economics, vol. 14 no. 1, pp. 221-35.

Marwill, M 1996, ‘Sampling for qualitative research’, Family practice, vol. 13 no. 6, 522-26.

Munn-Giddings, C & Winter, R 2013, A handbook for action research in health and social care, Routledge, London.

Porter, M & Kramer, M 2006, ‘The link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility’, Harvard business review, vol. 84 no. 12, pp. 78-92.

Scott, T, Mannion, R, Davies, H & Marwill, M 2003, ‘Implementing culture change in health care: theory and practice’, International Journal for Quality in Health Care, vol. 15 no. 2, pp. 111-8.

Spector, R & Spector, R 2004, Cultural diversity in health and illness, Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Sugiyono, J 2008, Statistical for Research, Alfabeta Press, Bandung, Indonesia.

Vertovec, S 2007, ‘Super-diversity and its implications’, Ethnic and racial studies, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 1024-54.

Whitehead, M 1992, ‘The concepts and principles of equity and health’, International journal of health services, vol. 22 no. 3, pp. 429-45.

Appendix

  • RESPONDENT CONSENT FORM___________________________
  • NAME OF INSTITUTION:__________________________________
  • DEPARTMENT:___________________________________________
  • CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE IN RESEARCH
  • AN EVALUATION OF IMPACTS OF DIVERSITY ON HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE PROVISION

You are requested to participate in a research study conducted by ( Insert full name) pursuing an ( Insert course and level ) at ( Name of institution).

For any information, please feel free to contact (insert your name and contacts)

Purpose of the Study

The study is designed to evaluate the impacts of diversity on health and social care provision in Maryland.

Procedures

If you are willing to participate in this study, I would like to ask you to answer the questionnaire attached to this form.

Potential Benefits to Participants And/or to Society

The benefits of the study will be on the provision of information on the creation of awareness of impacts of diversity on service provision in the health and social work sectors. Stakeholders, government and public will benefit especially on the information that helps to the improvement of employment with regard to diversity.

Confidentiality

Every effort and contribution made on this questionnaire will only be used for studying purposes and the information will be kept secret.

Participation and Withdrawal

You can choose whether to be in this study or not. Withdrawal from the study is a personal choice and does not attract any penalties. You may exercise the option of removing your data from the study. When answering the questions, you may leave any questions you do not want or you do not feel free to answer.

Rights of Research Participants

This study has been reviewed and received ethics clearance through the Department of (insert the department: Institution). If you have questions regarding your rights as a respondent, please contact: (give your contacts and name).

Signature of Research Participant/Legal Representative

I have read the information provided for the study “AN EVALUATION OF IMPACTS OF DIVERSITY ON HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE PROVISION” as described herein. My questions have been answered to my satisfaction, and I agree to participate in this study by answering the attached questionnaire.

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