Life without electricity, heating, and other amenities seems unbearable for modern people. However, all these conveniences were invented only at the end of the nineteenth century. Innovative findings forced the transformation of the industrial sphere as new materials, manufacturing techniques, and appliances were evolving. Many scientific discoveries during this period also facilitated communication which allowed uniting all the continents, developing the transcontinental trade system, and increasing production levels significantly.
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The most substantial scientific discovery of the nineteenth century is electricity which replaced steam in many industries. The revolutionary change emerged with the invention of the first electric machine generator produced by Siemens. Other important findings were an electric incandescent lamp, the first hydroelectric power station, power lines, and three-phase alternating current. All of them facilitated the methods of power generation in the production environment and allowed transmitting electricity at long distances.
Obviously, they also contributed to industrialization because the routine processes were performed by automated machines at high speeds and with greater accuracy. In addition, cast iron rails of a new construction invented by Imley successfully superseded the common wrought rails, so it was possible to transport goods easier (Porter, 2009). There was also an extraordinary finding, a machine that sews beautiful and strong seams in cloth as rapid as nine tailors that positively influenced the evolvement of the light industry. It helped to create apparel and garment much faster with minimum human intervention.
Apart from the technological innovations, a range of new materials was developed and further implemented in new products. For instance, rubber discovery allowed Charles Goodyear to elaborate on the processing technology that provided a possibility to manufacture wheels and construct fast and convenient transport (Agarwal H. & Agarwal R., 2017). Other materials were derived from the combination of chemical, geographical, and physical phenomena. That way steel was created with the help of the mined iron compounds and oxygen. Steel pipes and sheets were heavily utilized in the construction of industrial objects, ships, military elements, and infrastructure facilities.
Owing to industrialization, communication was also rapidly developing at the turn of the twentieth century. The most important invention in the sphere of telecommunications was the telegraph which allowed transmitting the information at long distances. Another important technological invention, the telephone, was produced by Alexander Graham Bell and used primarily for business purposes (Agarwal H. & Agarwal R., 2017).
At the end of the industrial revolution, radio was also commercialized by Guglielmo Marconi, making it possible to launch various advertisement campaigns and promote sales of goods. With each year, communication became more influential in society because it served as a global network connecting all the continents and countries that obtained access to such technologies. As the Second Industrial Revolution was characterized by mass production, radio and advertisement helped to promote those goods and increase sales.
The opposite side of industrialization is also represented in magazines and newspapers of that time. While many natural materials were used in the production of goods at the factories and plants, ecological problems arose as a consequence. Humboldt, the remarkable naturalist and explorer, demonstrated that destruction of timbers negatively influenced the streams of the country and the flow of seasons (Porter, 2009). Thus it is necessary to go industrialized in a wise way to decrease the harmful environmental impact.
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The Second Industrial Revolution brought many improvements and innovations that made the production process and life of people easier. Such inventions as electricity, radio, and telegraph, along with new material processing methods promoted the creation of new devices and appliances utilized both in industrial and personal purposes. Despite all the benefits and advantages, the industrial revolution imposed a great risk on the environment and depletion of the natural resources.
Agarwal, H., & Agarwal, R. (2017). First Industrial Revolution and Second Industrial Revolution: Technological differences and the differences in banking and financing of the firms. Saudi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2(11), 1062-1066.
Porter, R. (Ed.). (2009). The advocate of industry and journal of scientific, mechanical and other improvements. Scientific American Magazine, 2 (1). Web.