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Influenza Pandemic Outbreak Analysis


The group case study involves analysis of preparedness plan and challenges of an influenza pandemic on a developing nation. The infectious disease has undergone extensive studies in collaboration with CDC leadership. The leadership in the management of influenza pandemic is vital for efficient mitigation. Leaders in the healthcare infrastructure have great responsibility in training personnel, planning the mitigation intervention, and strengthening core capacities through financial support from donors. Challenges are inevitable in the mitigation process, and the success of the preparedness plan depends on the leadership qualities. Transactional and transformational leaders have important aspects of management that influence the achievement of the mitigation intervention. Poor leadership contributes immensely to the general failure of the preparedness plan of an influenza pandemic.

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CDC Director, Crisis Response

The group case study involves analysis on the level of preparedness of influenza pandemic in a developing nation. The nation faces major challenges within the healthcare system and the individuals within it, which include lack of medical infrastructure and trained personnel to cope with the influenza pandemic (Danforth, Doying, Merceron, & Kennedy, 2010). Being the director of CDC, I have the mandate of training more personnel on the development of preparedness plan that mitigates the social and health effects of the people (Osterholm, 2005). The training process makes use of available plans from developed nations or adopts a similar approach in the mitigation process. The adoption of the plans from the developed nation may encounter some challenges due to limited infrastructure, technical expertise, and funds (Danforth et al., 2010). The delay in the mitigation process may result to increase in morbidity and mortality rate. To address these challenges, the newly trained team will participate in a feasible approach that involves non-pharmaceutical interventions. The non-pharmaceutical interventions include isolation, social distancing, quarantine, and personal hygiene. Further assistance from the national government will be essential for implementing the pharmaceutical intervention (Nahavandi, 2014).

Transformational and Transactional leaders

Leadership is essential in the management of pandemic influenza outbreak (Leadership-Central, 2011). A transformational leader may motivate the healthcare personnel in the mitigation intervention of the influenza pandemic through active participation in the identification of social factors that facilitate the fast spread of the disease (Lindebaum & Cartwright, 2010; Weberg, 2010). Some of the social factors that need critical evaluation are the nature of housing, the population density of the endemic region, nutritional status of the people, and the co-existence of the medical conditions. The intervention of the transformational leader will influence the development of feasible mitigation strategies (Laureate Education, 2012; Gupta, 2009). A transactional leader may influence the outcomes of intervention through monetary reward of the trained personnel upon successful mitigation of the influenza pandemic. However, the transactional leader may not manage to solve technical problems that the trained team may face in the field due to lack of active participation in the mitigation process. The transactional leader may lack an understanding of the failure of the mitigation intervention (Laureate Education, 2012; Melvyn, Hamstra, Yperen, Wisse, & Sassenberg, 2011).

Poor Leadership

Poor leadership may contribute to inefficiency in the mitigation process on influenza pandemic. Pandemic planning and response to influenza require ethical consideration in the preparedness planning process (Leadership Champions, 2008). A misinformed leader may lack the understanding of the crisis in the mitigation process and value-based research for pandemic influenza. For example, logistical challenges are evident in the majority of pandemic diseases, hence the need for addressing them before embarking on the preparedness plan (Nahavandi, 2014). A bad leader may shortfall the need for detecting, controlling and preventing the spread of influenza virus. The inefficiency in handling the influenza pandemic may have a link on the lack of expanded knowledge on the infectious disease leading to poor surveillance. Additionally, The leader may lack an interest in seeking collaboration from other health facilities and support from donors (Leadership-Central, 2011).


Danforth, E., Doying, A., Merceron, G., & Kennedy, L. (2010). Applying Social Science and Public Health Methods to Community-Based Pandemic Planning. Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning, 4(4), 375-390.

Gupta, A. (2009). Transformational Leadership: Practical Management-Designing a Better Workplace. Web.

Laureate Education. (2012). Leadership Theory: Transactional Transformational Leadership Theory. Baltimore, MD: Laureate Education, Inc.

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Leadership-Central. (2011). Leadership Theories. Web.

Leadership Champions. (2008). Transactional Leadership vs. Transformational Leadership. Web.

Lindebaum, D., & Cartwright, S. (2010). A Critical Examination of the Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership. Journal of Management Studies, 47(7), 1317-1342.

Melvyn, R. W., Hamstra, N. W., Yperen, V., Wisse, B., & Sassenberg, K. (2011). Transformational-transactional leadership styles and followers’ regulatory focus. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 10(4), 187-186.

Nahavandi, A. (2014). Current Era in Leadership: Inspiration and Connection to Followers. In, The Art and Science of Leadership (pp. 178-210). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Osterholm, M. T. (2005). Preparing for the Next Pandemic. New England Journal of Medicine, 352(18), 1839-1842.

Weberg, D. (2010). Transformational Leadership and Staff Retention: An Evidence Review with Implications for Healthcare Systems. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 34(3), 246-258.

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