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Integration of Refugees and Radicalization Prevention


Importance of the Issue in the Global Context

The issues regarding refugees are currently highly relevant given the social and political environment in such countries as Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq. Refugees from these areas have no alternative other than to seek shelter in Europe. The resulting enormous flow of refugees leads to social, political, economic, and cultural problems across the European Union (EU). Such countries as Germany and Serbia are particularly crucial to examine as they are open to virtually all refugees in contrast to many countries, especially those of Eastern Europe, who oppose the admission of refugees and migrants. Such a situation creates the risk of a European split and may even lead to some leaving the EU, as in case of the UK.

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Problem Identification

First of all, it is necessary to clarify the term of “refugee”. It can be defined as a person who had to leave his or her country because of persecution on religious or political grounds, war, or other imminent dangers to life. The movement of refugees is currently experiencing a significant increase in the numbers of migrants and refugees from the Middle East and Africa (The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees). This migration crisis has already been acknowledged to be the largest since the Second World War. The size and nature of this crisis has caused mixed reactions across the world. Some people, referring to the experience of the Roman Empire, perceive the migration crisis as the beginning of the end of European civilization. For others, the current immigration situation is a manifestation of the inefficiency of European institutions and organizational structures that have been created to regulate migration flows.

One of the distinguishing features of the current crisis is the merger of several migration flows with legal asylum seekers and illegal economic migrants coalescing into one powerful stream. It is important to note that the majority of migrants initially target the most developed countries of Western Europe, indicating a relatively high degree of awareness of the standards of living and social and economic assistance available to migrants and refugees in any particular EU country. Modern migrants, unlike their predecessors, do not blindly run from danger, rather their actions are based on information provided not only from the media but also from formal and informal information networks, including feedback from ethnic diasporas that is facilitated by the spread of the Internet.

In terms of the long-term effects of the migration crisis, on the one hand, receiving countries become more diverse and multicultural, promoting globalization, but on the other, this in itself may cause ethnic conflicts. In particular, some aspects of Muslim beliefs and practices are alien to Europeans. Receiving countries often encounter additional refugee issues that may be reflected in a country’s financial state. In their turn, refugees very often face a lack of employment opportunities in the receiving countries (The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees). Considering that the majority of refugees have no education or comparatively low levels of educational qualifications, it is no surprise that job opportunities are severely limited. The fact that the perceptions and attitudes of Europeans and refugees are not aligned may lead to cultural conflicts. In general, however, the long-term outcomes would appear to be positive where appropriate measures are implemented to promote integration.

Causes of the Problem

The Syrian refugee crisis began with the escalating violence in the Middle East and resulted in the implementation of an asylum policy in 2015 (Kingsley 2015). According to the definition given by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), “national asylum systems are in place to determine who qualifies for international protection; however, everyone has a right to seek asylum” (The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees). The ongoing war in Syria has caused extreme poverty and created fear amongst its citizens, driving many to relocate in pursuit of a better life. The refugees crossed the borders of the EU both by sea and land. The “Balkan Route” involved approximately 1.5 million people using the advantages of the Schengen Agreement, which eliminates border controls between those countries that have signed it, to access the more wealthy northern European members of the EU. The use of this route was facilitated by the decision of the government of Macedonia to provide a three-day visa to refugees, thus presenting an easy way to enter the EU. The most targeted countries include Germany, Denmark, and the Netherlands. The problem is exacerbated by the fact that currently refugees can, “pay smugglers no more than $2,000 to $3,000 to complete the journey instead of the $5,000 to $6,000 required to reach Libya and take the boat to Italy” (Sly 2015, para. 5). Another reason for the current refugee crisis lies in the deterioration of refugee camps in countries such as Turkey, Lebanon and Jordon. In particular, people have had to suffer from a lack of drinking water, food, and electricity. In many cases, children have had no opportunity to receive basic education at schools, let alone opportunities to take university level courses. At the same time, Europe was seen as a beacon of prosperity, economic opportunities, and safety.

Refugees from Other Nationalities

In addition to those from Syria, there are numerous refugees from Jordan, Lebanon, Iraq, and Turkey. They also seek a better life and are usually considered along with Syrian refugees. This means that refugees from nationalities other than Syria receive the same financial aid and social services.

Role of the UAE in the Refugee Crisis

As a part of the international community, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) strives to promote a diverse society and provide support in the context of wider international efforts. It goes without saying that the international community as a whole suffers from the refugee crisis. The UAE is no exception. In this regard, the country’s foreign policy focuses on meeting existing challenges in a sustainable and humane manner (Malek). From the time of its unification, the UAE has provided assistance for those who are in need, irrespective of country. In particular, in 2013, it was recognized as the most important donor to Official Development Assistance (ODA). The core principal of this program is the establishment of human rights throughout the world.

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In collaboration with its regional and international partners, the UAE has developed a range of important measures. In particular, it has extended permission to reside to approximately 100, 000 Syrians although the number is estimated at 242, 000 (Syrian Refugee Crisis – UAE Contribution). Moreover, it has donated $630 million in humanitarian aid both directly and within the framework of the Syria Recovery Trust Fund. Financial aid is also provided through the Marajeeb Al Fhood refugee camp which is located within Jordanian territory and serves as a shelter for Jordanian, Lebanese, Iraqi, and Turkish refugees. Various refugee camps received an additional $72 million within the past two years (Syrian Refugee Crisis – UAE Contribution). The detailed information is presented in the following Infographics 1:

UAE support to Syria
Infographics 1. UAE support to Syria

The UAE supports the UNHCR programs by contributing $38 million for their realization. Supporting the Global Coalition Against Daesh (ISIL), the country acts as a co-leader and provides essential humanitarian aid. The Emirates’ Red Crescent assists refugees as well assisting camps in Jordan, for example, the Al Zaatri Camp, and in Greece. As a result, the contribution of the UAE to alleviating the refugee crisis is considerable and it makes very conscious, considerable efforts to support refugees by establishing, maintaining, and funding camps while at the same time actively participating in various meetings and summits called to determine ways to resolve the issue.

Germany and Serbia in Relation to the UAE

The Role of Germany in Terms of Bilateral Relations and Political Viewpoint

Germany and the UAE have a rich history of bilateral relations as an increasing number of officials and businessmen visit the two countries specifically for the development of cooperation. The UAE is one of Germany’s largest export partners and has more than 300 German companies, including Siemens and Daimler Chrysler, operating in the country. According to the Minister of Finance, it is necessary to realize the importance of relations between the countries (United Arab Emirates). Germany is involved in the development of key sectors of the economy in Dubai, such as the technological and financial services sectors.

Germany and the UAE established their first political contact in 1972, and, since 2004, regular political consultations have taken place between the ministries of foreign affairs of the two countries. The Emirati German Friendship Society was created in 2006. The multiple reciprocal visits are testimony to their intentions to create sustainable cooperation over issues of global concern. There has been no deviation from this collaboration since its inception, thus demonstrating a consistent approach by both in their relations. The importance of the UAE-Germany relationship can also be seen in the tourism rates. In particular, Germany is the ninth largest source of tourists for the UAE. In its turn, the UAE is the fourth largest provider of tax free-shopping tourists in terms of the money they spend. There are several direct daily flights between Germany and the UAE. The German National Tourist Board and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) have offices in both countries, helping to increase the level of tourism.

Another aspect of bilateral relations between the UAE and Germany is the cultural ties that have been developed. For example, the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) and the Goethe Institute (GI) offer various exchange programs that are aimed at both education and the promotion of friendship and an understanding of a new culture. Several German schools and colleges have been set up across the UAE and Emirate schools in Germany open to German students. The development of such mutually beneficial cultural links is an indication of the close collaboration of the countries, and suggests that they will strengthen and increase in the coming years.

The Role of Serbia in Bilateral Relations with the UAE

The development of bilateral relations between the UAE and Serbia is supported by reciprocal visits by representatives of both countries. The collaboration began in 2012, with the signing of an initiation of diplomatic relationship agreement and a range of other political agreements. With the signing of the Interstate Agreement of Cooperation in 2013, economic collaboration began (Bilateral Relations). The advantages of this relationship are manifested in the opening of new and attainable opportunities for both countries. Developing the economy of each other, they exchange products and services and also promote the concept of a diverse society. In the case of Serbia and the UAE, political agreements are supported by economic ties. Taking into account the fact that the UAE has one of the greatest political and economic powers in the world, Serbia became its partner. The Republic of Serbia and UAE have commodity exchanges valued at $30 million per year (Bilateral Relations). In particular, such sectors as agriculture, defense industry, pharmaceutics, and tourism are especially valued and valuable. The latter is characterized by increased interest from the both sides. In particular, the National Tourism Organization of Serbia is keen to attract more visitors from the UAE to its Belgrade Waterfront and some other major sites while the UAE is investing in the development of these attractions. The number of direct flights has risen to seven return flights per week between Serbia and the UAE.

There are a number of ongoing projects between the two countries. For example, the UAE provides financial aid to Serbia. As a result, the largest country of the former Yugoslavia may refuse to accept loans from international financial organizations and might cancel plans to place Eurobonds in the amount of €1 billion, if it manages to agree more favorable terms from the UAE (Bilateral Relations). The loan is needed to enable Serbia to pay its debts and eliminate its budget deficit. The size of the loan, according to budget plans, would be in the region of $2 billion US dollars. The interest rate on Serbian state dollar bonds of Serbia, expected to mature in 2021, is 4.8 percent. Currently, Serbia is implementing a plan to cut budgetary expenditure in order to reduce the budget deficit and the level of public debt. Measures include reducing public sector wages and pension payments and selling unprofitable state-owned assets, including the telecommunications company Telekom Serbia, and Belgrade airport.

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The United Arab Emirates has already invested in Serbia, with, for example, Etihad acquiring a 49 percent stake in Air Serbia (Bilateral Relations). Eagle Hills, owned by the head of the state-owned Emaar Mohammad Al Abbar Company, has launched the Belgrade Waterfront project, which will create a complex on the Danube with 5,700 apartments, eight hotels with 2,200 rooms, office buildings, and the largest shopping center in the Balkans. Eagle Hills owns a 68 percent stake in the project while the remaining shares are owned by the Serbian government. A “Memorandum of Understanding of the Government of the Republic of Serbia and Mubadala company in advanced technologies was signed by the First Deputy Prime Minister of Serbia Mr.Aleksandar Vucic and Managing Director of Mubadala Khaldoon Al Mubarak in 2012 in Belgrade” (Bilateral Relations). The total cost of the project, one of the largest in Serbia over the past 20 years, is $3 billion. The UAE is one of the potential buyers of the Telekom Serbia Corporation.

UAE – Germany Bilateral Relations

Business Ties

Along with existing political relations, economic intelligence unit, business ties, and infrastructure projects are being developed as Germany and the UAE increase their already extensive trade relations. According to recent data, “German exports to UAE were worth approximately €14.6 billion in 2015, making UAE – along with Saudi Arabia – Germany’s principal export market in the entire Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region” (United Arab Emirates). Moreover, exports from the UAE to Germany comprise goods valued at €0.9 billion, made up primarily of aluminum sales. In its turn, Germany exports cars, electrical goods, and chemical products. The German Embassy in Abu Dhabi and the German Consulate General in Dubai are the two responsible institutions that initiate bilateral trade. The German-Emirati Joint Council for Industry and Commerce (AHK) was founded in 2009 and works on improving German companies’ access to the UAE market and vice versa. As identified on the German official website, there are approximately 900 companies operating in the UAE market, most of them located in Dubai (UAE Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation). Germany and the UAE have agreements regarding air borders and a new double taxation agreement. In the list of the largest commercial exchanges of the world created by Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation (MOFAIC), Germany holds the third place and is estimated that transactions worth $2,597,240.00 are carried out annually. It is evident that Germany and the UAE have strong existing relations in a variety of fields, including political, economic, social, and cultural sectors.

Connection between the UAE and Serbia

Economic Bilateral

As has been mentioned earlier in this paper, economic relations between Serbia and the UAE are based on shared political views and various investment programs. In this regard, recent reports show that the UAE finances the Belgrade Military Technical Institute and the Utva plant in Pancevo, in particular, the three projects developing military aircraft: the turbo-propeller training and assault aircraft Kobas, a near-sound training aircraft for advanced training as a further development of the Orao aircraft, as well as a supersonic multipurpose aircraft Beli Orao (UAE Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation). In total, the United Arab Emirates has invested approximately $200 million in the Serbian defense sector with an emphasis on the joint development of the 155 mm self-propelled howitzer Nora B-52 and guided ALAS missiles. In 2012, Tawazun, an Emirati company, signed an agreement establishing a joint venture to develop controlled weapon systems from the South African Denel (Bilateral Relations). The joint venture, in which the Tavazun share is 51 percent, is located in the Abu Dhabi Tawazun Industrial Park. The countries intend to continue the development of the Nora self-propelled howitzer and this confirms the desire of the UAE to develop the capabilities of its national defense industry in the area of artillery systems.

Developments in the area of mutual banking projects are worthy of consideration. Mirabank’s assets amount to $300 million and its work in Serbia promotes closer cooperation between the two countries and also facilitates transactions (Bilateral Relations). In highlighting how important the cooperation between Serbia and the UAE is, the unity of Etihad and UAT Airways, the Serbian airline, is a prime example of how the two countries are working collaboratively. Today, the joint company Air Serbia is especially important, in terms not only of the quality of services provided to passengers and their numbers but also in terms of the appearance of the planes.

Germany Before and After Refugees

The Latest Statistics Regarding Refugees

The preferred destination for the majority of asylum seekers is the northern European countries, especially Germany. It was the Chancellor of Germany, Angela Merkel, who decided to open the country’s borders to hundreds of thousands of refugees and migrants who arrived in Germany and other European countries within the previous year in an attempt to escape the conflicts in Syria, Iraq, and Jordan. Many of the refugees did not have passports, so that the police were not in a position to confirm identity or even their country of origin. According to official data, the climax of the refugee crisis has passed as only 280, 000 applications were received in 2016 compared to 890, 000 in 2015 (The Federal Office for Migration and Refugees). A further 250, 000 people allegedly entered Germany and are still in hiding from the authorities. In 2016, at least 210, 000 migrants arrived officially in Germany. The immigration figures are presented in Figure 1.

 Immigration concern - Germany
Figure 1. Immigration concern – Germany

Germany spends significant amounts of money to support refugees in its territory. Ostrand states that, “Germany and the United States have provided the most resettlement places as of January 2015, these two countries made up one-half of all the resettlement and other forms of admission space offered for Syrian refugees by countries outside the region” (268). The question as to how much money Germany spends on the reception and maintenance of refugees is complex. In most studies, the cost of maintaining one refugee during the year is estimated at approximately €12, 000 – 20, 000 (Ostrand 270). Based on these estimates and its own calculations, the Ministry of Finance of the Federal Republic of Germany will spend €93.6 billion between 2016-2020 (Dearden). Approximately €20 billion, therefore, will be required each year from the federal treasury. In 2016, the largest expenditure, €6.9 billion, was spent to support land and local authorities, which bore the direct costs for the reception and maintenance of refugees.

However, the German Ministry of Internal Affairs recently issued a statement that the measures taken by the authorities to reduce the influx of refugees from eastern countries are not working (Dearden). Experts from the European Commission assume that the scale of the migration crisis, which broke out in the fall of 2015, may render the authorities impotent to manage the situation. The German Ministry of Internal Affairs supplies depressing data and calculates that in 2017 about one million people who have arrived from Syria, Libya, and other “hot spots” of the Eastern region are trying to enter the territory of the European Union.

Integration Method Used by the Government

Germany is considered to be a leader among countries that accept migrant refugees. It tries to promote a unified European policy for their reception, primarily in terms of quotas and equal distribution of migrants throughout the EU (European Website on Integration). This country opened its borders. However, due to the Schengen Agreement, which allowed unhindered access to all EU states, it had to introduce a temporary border control regime, appealing to other countries to show solidarity with them. Berlin temporarily stopped and then re-started the procedure for the readmission of refugees from Syria to countries that, according to the Dublin protocol, were formally the countries of their first arrival in the EU. By the same token, however, Germany was skeptical about the viable implementation of the Dublin agreement according to which Italy and Greece should have the responsibility for those refugees that had entered the EU through their territory. However, Germany calls upon other EU countries to be more open and welcoming to refugees.

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As for the cost of the integration efforts that may be initiated by Germany, the Institute for Economic Research estimated that the integration of refugees from Syria and other eastern countries would cost the country €21 billion (Bach et al.). This amount is supposed to be spent on educational programs and the provision of food and housing to the refugees. This information can hardly be considered comforting as the experts from the Institute of Economic Research express caution. They believe that Germany is not yet ready to meet such costs, and the authorities should not continue to finance refugees at the expense of paying more regular debts (Bach et al.). The head of the Institute believes that the money earmarked for the financing of refugees should be spent in a more focused and sophisticated way.

Legal Aspects

The government of Germany and leaders of non-governmental organizations believe that refugees and migrants will enrich Germany and will have a beneficial effect on the labor market in the light of the demographic difficulties and the aging of the indigenous population. However, taking into account the relatively low educational level of most arrivals, it is likely that they will primarily enter the low-wage labor market. Another potential decision is the extent to which the government should provide refugees with appropriate education.

Social Points

Looking at the refugee issue from the social perspective, it should be noted that Germany is ready to provide social benefits not only to citizens but also to new arrivals. According to the statistics, every third refugee chooses Germany as a destination, and Germany has one of the highest levels of social guarantee to people who have been accepted for political asylum or given refugee status. The country already integrates various ethnic groups from countries such as Albania, Turkey, and other Maghreb countries. Germany is, perhaps, the only country where the majority of residents consider that refugees make the country stronger because of the creation of a new labor force.

Initially, a person who applies to be granted asylum has to live in a migration camp. Over time, he or she is distributed to one of the regions of the German state (Germany). There, a person has the right to benefit from more comfortable housing. If a person needs to leave his or her place of residence, he or she has to obtain the appropriate permission from the German authorities. In 2016, the average monthly allowance for a family consisting of two adults and five children who were granted asylum status was €3,612 (Germany). Refugees have the right to receive unemployment benefits, having collected the necessary information and proving their inability to work.

Germany provides education to refugee children and specific training programs for adults. For example, Le Blond and Welters point out that, “a group of Syrian refugee children saved a famous German school from disaster and breathed new life into a shrinking village”. This story indicates the willingness of refugee children to study and acquire knowledge and skills, thus developing themselves and the place in which they currently live. Among other social services, they also receive free medical insurance, monthly social payments, free language courses, and the right to compete for employment.

Serbia Before and After Refugees

Statistical Facts

Serbia is considered to be one of the transit countries on the way to the EU. However, it is also a temporary shelter for refugees from different Eastern countries. According to the latest data, the number of refugees has increased drastically, reaching 2,500-3,000 persons per day (Migration Policy Centre). For the most part, they are Syrians (67 percent), with Iraqis (15 percent), and Afghans (7 percent) making up most of the remainder. It should be noted that the data reflects only registered refugees that comprise approximately half of the whole refugee flow. Considering this fact and also that the reception capacity of Serbia had already been exceeded, many refugees inevitably encountered a lack of food, social services, and adequate sanitation conditions.

Recently, Serbia announced its intention to completely close its borders to refugees. Following steps from Hungary, Austria, and Slovenia, Belgrade is likely to take this step: “Mr. Nikolić, the President of Serbia, indicated his patience has run out with Europe’s patchwork response to the escalating chaos, meaning he will now take matters into his own hands” (Gutteridge). According to the Serbian head of state, his country cannot be like a funnel, from which water flows. Despite a willingness to help, Serbia is likely to take tough measures to restrict entry. At best, the state cannot accept more than five or six thousand refugees. According to the authorities, in Serbia there are currently about 7,400 people who have come from African and Middle Eastern countries (Gutteridge), housed in reception centers. The majority of them expect to be allowed to move to Hungary or other EU countries.

Integration Method Used by the Government

The approach of Serbia’s government focuses on the enhancement of existing reception facilities. In particular, the three assistance centers built near the border on the way to EU countries. All the facilities closely collaborate with the UNHCR in order to provide the best assistance possible (Migration Policy Centre). At the same time, the government understands that there is a dire need for further actions as the number of arrivals increases. Therefore, Serbia is seeking international support over such issues as migration management and refugee reception. In response, the EU decided to grant €3.2 million to build new assistance facilities and an extra €400,000 to improve the current centers (Migration Policy Centre). Serbia actively, and positively, participates in the refugee crisis, trying to eliminate negative outcomes and help new arrivals.

Legal Points

Serbia signed both the 1951 Convention and the Geneva Convention’s 1967 Protocol that establishes refugee status. Serbia also accepted a proposal of the European Commission, establishing a list of safe EU countries. Considering the urgent nature of the problem, Serbia responded by initiating a processing centre that is controlled by the Serbian Commissariat for Refugees and Migration (SCRM) and Border Police.

Social Aspects

Like Germany, Serbia strives to provide refugees with all the necessary social services, including drinking water, food, housing, and health care. The Institute of Public Health in Sremska Mitrovica conducts daily monitoring of the public health situation in north-western Serbia. The surveillance systems work on a daily basis. In addition, the Institute acts as a part of the local anti-crisis headquarters, which coordinates the actions of partners, including the Commissariat for Refugees, the Serbian Red Cross, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, municipal authorities, and public services (Food, Water and Health Care: WHO Reviews Basic Services for Refugees Crossing Serbia). The World Health Organization (WHO) helps the Ministry of Health and the local leadership of health services to ensure the provision of services by non-governmental organizations.

The Serbian authorities transformed the former hospital in Principapovac into a reception center, creating accommodation for up to 250 refugees in need of rest and medical care. Together with the medical center in Shide, non-governmental organizations, including the International Relief Network and the International Health Service, work in teams consisting of a doctor, two nurses, and a psychologist. In terms of the recent harsh winter, “Serbian authorities are trying to relocate refugees from the undignified, unsafe and unhygienic conditions in improvised shelters” (What is being done to help refugees survive winter in the Balkans?). On the border of Tovarnik and Bapska, basic services are provided by the local office of the UNHCR along with the Red Cross and the Danish Refugee Council. Thus, regional health organizations manage and collaborate with non-governmental organizations.

If the number of refugees entering Serbian territory each day exceeds 2,000 people, the state may not have enough resources to adequately manage the flow (Gutteridge). In addition to placements, these refugees need medical care, food, and special equipment. In the event that, for any reason, Western Europe ceases, or restricts, the reception of refugees, a highly complicated situation will result. In terms of the current social needs of refugees in Serbia, “additional medicines and an ambulance are needed for the health centre in Sid, and a mobile medical clinic is needed for the Reception Centre in Principovac” (Food, Water and Health Care: WHO Reviews Basic Services for Refugees Crossing Serbia).


Based on the above observations, a range of potential strategies that are likely to enhance the current situation can be recommended. For example, it may be beneficial to introduce a policy of urgent integration and share this proposal in the form of a public statement on social values (Bach et al.). At this point, it is crucial to consider the views of both citizens and refugees in order to regulate relationships between them and prevent any misunderstanding. Another recommendation that can be proposed concerns skill mismatch. Specific programs can be provided to help refugees to assimilate and find worthwhile employment, and some efforts have already been made to integrate refugees into the European society and reduce radicalization. In particular, the Law on Integration accepted by Germany presupposes the establishment of special courses for migrants arriving in the country, in order to help them to start a new life (Bach et al.). Table 1 outlines the benefits of educational qualifications and language programs.

Table 1. Impact of investment in increased educational qualifications and language skills of the 2015 refugees on macroeconomic income and public finances

One of the key goals of the educational program will be the acquisition of German language skills. However, those who refuse to accept state aid in the form of integration courses may be denied a residence permit and asylum. There is also an article in the new law concerning the employment of refugees which reminds employers that a refugee in Germany can be given a job only if the employer was unable to find a German or European to fill the position. Under an amended new law, this restriction will be relaxed for three years.

The experience of such countries as Germany and Serbia illustrates that the integration process should begin immediately after a refugee’s arrival. The sooner the people who are likely to stay start learning German and be enabled to find work, the sooner they will be involved in everyday communication, and a better situation will be established for both citizens and refugees. According to Gauk, the President of Germany, who participated in the symposium on integration in Berlin, it is very important to actively discuss the topic of integration at various levels, be it in political or public life (Bach et al.). To all who will have the opportunity to stay in Germany, it is of great significance to provide for them on their path to integration into the European society. At the same time, the politician pointed out the need for the refugees themselves to positively adapt to life in Germany and Serbia by actively participating in the courses and programs on offer.

Many people, both refugees and Europeans, as well citizens of other countries who observe the current refugee crisis, have already understood how attitudes and values ​​differ. For instance, a young man might refuse to give a hand to a teacher because she is a woman, or it is hard to talk about the Holocaust in the classroom environment. It is vital that the opinion of each is respected and any manifestations of aggression eliminated. The approval of this integration law by the federal government is a significant event as it is very much in line with the principles of incentives and assistance. On the other hand, those migrants who avoid integration will face serious cuts in benefits, and an indefinite residence permit will be issued only to those who have proved that they have integrated into German society.

One more potential solution to prevent radicalization is to return some of the refugees, as planned by Germany and Tunisia. The program, which was offered by the Chancellor of Germany Angela Merkel, presents a simplified process of deportation of Tunisian citizens, who were not granted asylum in Germany (New Tunisian-German Immigration Deal Trades Aid for Speedier Deportation). The new agreement contains detailed conditions for the expulsion of refugees and their further support at home. The Tunisian authorities should confirm the identity of those of their citizens applying for asylum within a month, and then provide Germany with all the necessary documents. According to Merkel, there are about 1.5 thousand Tunisian citizens living in Germany who have been refused asylum; “Because Tunisia is a relatively stable nation, asylum requests by its nationals are likely to be rejected” (New Tunisian-German Immigration Deal Trades Aid for Speedier Deportation). Most of these refugees do not have the documents necessary for the expulsion. Earlier it was reported that the German government offers refugees, who would voluntarily leave Germany, a €1.2 thousand allowance.


In conclusion, it has to be recognized that refugee crises cause myriad problems that are primarily associated with economic, social, and cultural issues. In the course of this paper, it has been established that the role of the UAE cannot be overestimated in relation to this crisis. The UAE makes vital efforts to initiate, support, and fund, refugee camps in different countries. Moreover, in collaboration with the EU states, and through participation in various summits on refugee issues, it acts as an important co-leader of the Global Coalition Against Daesh (ISIL) and the initiator of regulations concerning the migrant crisis. The UAE collaborates closely with Germany and Serbia, two countries that receive significant numbers of asylum seekers. In particular, Germany heads the list of the most desirable destination for refugees. This is due to the high level of social services provided to refugees. Serbia provides assistance for a small number of refugees and serves as a transit country for those who aspire to asylum in other EU countries. The most recent information available suggests that the capacity of EU countries to receive asylum seekers is limited, and efforts are being put in place to improve the current situation, specifically in relation to the attitudes to and opinions of both citizens and refugees. Based on information collected and its interpretation, it is recommended that policies aimed at implementing and continuing integration should be maintained and strengthened. Such an approach, involving the provision of specification and language courses to promote the integration of refugees into European society, will aid in preventing radicalization.

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Bach, Stefan, et al. “Refugee Integration: A Worthwhile Investment.” DIW Berlin, 2017, Web.

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Food, Water and Health Care: WHO Reviews Basic Services for Refugees Crossing Serbia. WHO, 2016, Web.

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Gutteridge, Nick. “Serbia to close borders to migrants as it blames EU for causing ‘blocked funnel’ of people”. Express, Web.

Kingsley, Patrick. “What caused the refugee crisis?’. The Guardian, 2015, Web.

Le Blond, Josie, and Jordon Welters. “Syrian refugees breathe new life into shrinking German village.” UNHCR, 2017, Web.

Malek, Caline. “UAE to welcome 15,000 refugees from Syria”. The National, 2016, Web.

Migration Policy Centre. Migration Policy Centre, 2017, Web.

New Tunisian-German Immigration Deal Trades Aid for Speedier Deportation. DW, 2017, Web.

Ostrand, Nicole. “The Syrian Refugee Crisis: A Comparison of Responses by Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States.”Journal on Migration and Human Security, vol. 3, no. 3, 2015, pp. 255–279.

Sly, Liz. “8 reasons Europe’s refugee crisis is happening now.” The Washington Post, 2015, Web.

Syrian Refugee Crisis – UAE Contribution. Embassy of the United Arab Emirates, 2017, Web.

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What is being done to help refugees survive winter in the Balkans? Rescue, 2017, Web.

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