United Nations Organization was founded in 1945. This organization aimed to establish world peace and world order after WWII. The alliance of the United Nations, which sheer necessity has brought about, with four World Powers as its corner-stones, therefore might prove a nucleus of world reorganization. Stark reality has brought it about and is forcing upon the partner’s coordination and integration not only of their ideals but of their strategy, production, transport, and trade. The possibilities of its development contain the hopes as well as the problems of the worldwide international reorganization.
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United Nations exists as an international body that provides a dialogue between nations and supports global order. Ends and means are not too widely separated. The immense problems of organization can only be overcome by a clear and powerful urge of common purpose and ideals, while the latter has to operate on a real and existing nucleus of world organization and cannot run away with abstract paper solutions. Socially and economically the differences are no less great. Today, Unnoted Nations involve 192 members. The United Nations has headquarters in New York and has several specialized agencies aimed to direct and control its main decisions and policies. The main bodies are The General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Secretariat, and the International Court of Justice. United Nations have such specialized bodies as World Health Organization, United Nations Children Fund, United Nations is headed by one of its member-state selected by general elections. Recently South Korea heads the UN.
The starting point of the alliance has been a negative one: a common danger and a common foe. This provides a certain, though essentially a negative, ideological link: a large measure of agreement on anti-Fascist principles; the condemnation of aggression, brutality, and tyranny; and the fundamental faith in a free individual. Beyond this, little has as yet been achieved. The Atlantic Charter, and its general principles regarding collective security and the freedom of nations, were announced by two of the four Allies only, though Mr. Molotov, on behalf of the Soviet Union, later agreed with its principles. There is, as yet, little indication of a common constructive program embodying, in outline, the principles of political and social reorganization. As regards common organs of government, even the pressure of extreme emergency has not yet produced an Inter-Allied Cabinet or War Council. Political coordination depends on the regular contact of Ambassadors, supplemented by occasional visits of the leading statesmen1 to one or the other of the Allies. The most powerful move towards a “mix-up” lies in the application of the Lease-Lend principle to all Allies. It implies that, though the United States is, at present, the principal supplier, supplies are exchanged according to need and availability. It is clear that, on balance, the alliance of the United Nations is, as yet, far from being the nucleus of a revolution in international relations such as the dramatic proposal of the Union between Britain and France would have been. The United Nations policies are effective because they allow world nations to solve disputes and stop conflicts.
The organization of peace can no more be localized than that of war. But it is equally certain that most disturbances will primarily affect certain groups of nations most directly concerned by interests, resources, and geographical proximity. The practical solution will most likely be that of a combination of primary and auxiliary military obligations in case of aggression. This, in itself, involves appropriate regional understanding and organization. This need is powerfully reinforced by political and economic exigencies. The lack of balance in the military, as well as economic power between a State like Germany and several small and largely mutually antagonistic States in Central, Eastern, and South-Eastern Europe, has proved disastrous to the latter. Compelled to sell their surplus produce to the most potent customers, they slid into economic vassalage, while unable, except in a powerful combination, to resist political and, eventually, military penetration. The analysis has also revealed the strength and extent of the formation of large, compact, regional units in which political cohesion and economic relations reinforce each other. All this points to the need for regional associations, large enough to absorb some of the export surpluses of its component States and to balance industrial and agricultural needs, and powerful enough to face a potential aggressor. The ideals of collective security, of federal association, of an international charter for the individual, can and should reinforce each other, while the development of continental unions can be put to pacific and cosmopolitan as well as to imperialist use. Freed from their perpetual preoccupation with war, political prestige is expressed in terms of military power. The main weakness of the United Nations is the lack of strong power and military forces able to intrude into military conflicts and stop local wars. The main problem is that it is extremely difficult to prove the issue of justice and accept a decision avoidable for all parties and states. It is unlikely that the strong and worldwide tendency towards the formation of compact and relatively self-sufficient economic spaces will be quickly reversed. The coordination of military and economic resources will likely move along parallel lines. To improve its legal base, United national Assembly should revise and reorganize its policies and laws by modern political trends and international relations. Special attention should be given to international relations between regional powers and regional unions, their impact on global peace and global world order.
- Charlton, M. Crosscurrents: International Relations, Fourth Edition. Nelson College Indigenous, 2004.
- Ray, L., Kaarbo, J. Global Politics, Eight Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company; 2004.