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Kidney Failure in Latino and African-American Groups

PICOT Question

in minority groups such as African American and Latino populations, how do the services of trained health workers compare to untrained health workers in improving patients’ health suffering from kidney failure?

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Most minority populations in America have a higher likelihood of kidney failure than White Americans (Murphy et al., 2020). Studies indicate that 13% of African Americans and 13.1% of Latinos suffer from kidney failure leading to most mortality cases among adults (Murphy et al., 2020). Kidney failure develops when kidneys cannot filter harmful substances from the bloodstream, leading to an accumulation of toxins in the body. Symptoms include swollen joints and feet, shortness of breath, fatigue, confusion, and chest pains and pressure (Murphy et al., 2020). This essay identifies the leading cause of kidney failure among Latinos and African-Americans and why it has higher mortality rates considering the ignorance of kidney diseases among the population and providing possible solutions for positive outcomes in managing the disease.

Causes of Kidney Failure

Due to the lack of health education, most minority groups realize the diabetic symptoms late, leading to kidney failure. Diabetes is one of the leading causes of kidney failure among the American population (Murphy et al., 2020). African-Americans and Latinos have a six times higher rate of acquiring kidney failure from diabetes than White Americans (Anders et al., 2018). Untrained nurses find it relatively difficult to control or treat kidney damage when it reaches the chronic stage. Studies show that only one out of six African-Americans and Latinos realizes these disorders early enough for treatment (Dean, 2020). Another leading cause of kidney failure among these minority groups is high blood pressure (Thaha et al., 2019). The blood pressure cases in the black population stand at 42% more than in white Americans (Iddrisu et al., 2020). However, most Latinos are not aware of the effects that high blood pressure causes on the kidney.

High poverty levels limit access to healthcare facilities for check-ups and treatment; hence receive healthcare services from unspecialized health workers. Most minority groups do not have health insurance posing a challenge in receiving specialized health services (Melgaard et al., 2018). For example, studies show that a third of Latinos and 20% of African-Americans are not under any healthcare coverage (Iddrisu et al., 2020). Receiving healthcare services from unspecialized nurses leads to the most misdiagnosis and wrong treatments that may not improve the health of kidney failure patients.

Solutions

Educating patients and training healthcare workers to specialize in kidney failure is essential for managing, controlling, and preventing the disease. According to Ali et al. (2016), nurses and clinicians who train and specialize in kidney diseases are more aware of kidney failure than nurses with general knowledge and no specific specializations. Training health workers on the condition helps identify the kidney failure symptoms and give advice on self-management practices. Studies show that kidney failure patients who receive services from trained nurses and clinicians have better outcomes than those without training (Levey et al., 2021). For example, nurses who know about diabetes and high blood pressure as significant causes of kidney failure have given better diagnoses and methods of controlling the health issues, thus, preventing the disease.

Additionally, education increases the attitudes and perceptions of minority groups on kidney failure. Knowledge of what causes the disease might help patients avoid or limit these factors, enhancing positive outcomes. National programs support patient and health workers’ education as the critical element in caring for patients. Reports show that most nurses and clinicians cannot effectively explain the condition to their patients, leading to miscommunication (Ali et al., 2016). Therefore, caregivers need training and education to gain confidence in handling patients with kidney failure.

African-Americans and Latinos have a higher risk of kidney failure than white Americans due to ignorance, poverty, and limited access to knowledgeable healthcare services. Diabetes and high blood pressure are the leading causes of kidney failure among minority groups as most do not know the diseases. Most White Americans have insurance covers hence more healthcare options to medical facilities. The best solution in reducing mortality due to kidney failure in minority groups is educating and specializing the nurses’ training on the cause, management, prevention, and treatment of the condition.

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References

Ali, M., Mwendwa, D. T., Sims, R., Ricks, M., & Sumner, A. E. (2016). Age at immigration and kidney function among self-identified healthy Africans in the United States. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 18(1), 194-201. Web.

Anders, H., Huber, T. B., Isermann, B., & Schiffer, M. (2018). CKD in diabetes: Diabetic kidney disease versus nondiabetic kidney disease. Nature Reviews. Nephrology, 14(6), 361-377. Web.

Dean, E. (2020). Acute kidney injury: Who is at risk and how to care for patients. Nursing Standard, 35(5), 67-68. Web.

Iddrisu, M. A., Abdelhak, S., Saidatulakmal, M., Ramendran a/l SPR, S. C., Yip, C. Y., & Lau, L. S. (2020). The impact of HPB on elderly diseases (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, minor stroke, kidney failure, and heart problem): A logistic analysis. Ageing International, 45(2), 149-180. Web.

Levey, A. S., Eckardt, K., Dorman, N. M., Christiansen, S. L., Cheung, M., Jadoul, M., & Winkelmayer, W. C. (2020). Nomenclature for kidney function and disease: Executive summary and glossary from a kidney disease: Improving global outcomes (KDIGO) consensus conference. Renal Failure, 42(1), 560-566. Web.

Melgaard, L., Thure, F. O., Skjøth, F., Christensen, J. H., Larsen, T. B., & Gregory Y.H. Lip. (2018). Risk of stroke and bleeding in patients with heart failure and chronic kidney disease: A nationwide cohort study. ESC Heart Failure, 5(2), 319-326. Web.

Murphy, K. A., Greer, R. C., Roter, D. L., Crews, D. C., Ephraim, P. L., Carson, K. A., Cooper L. A., Albert M. C., & Ebony, B. L. (2020). Awareness and discussions about chronic kidney disease among African-Americans with chronic kidney disease and hypertension: A mixed-methods study. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 35(1), 298-306. Web.

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Thaha, M., Kadariswantiningsih, I. N., & Empitu, M. A. (2019). Association of high blood pressure with elevated oxidative stress, inflammatory marker, and albuminuria in chronic kidney disease patients. Journal of Medicine, 20(1), 12-18. Web.

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StudyCorgi. (2022, August 6). Kidney Failure in Latino and African-American Groups. Retrieved from https://studycorgi.com/kidney-failure-in-latino-and-african-american-groups/

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StudyCorgi. 2022. "Kidney Failure in Latino and African-American Groups." August 6, 2022. https://studycorgi.com/kidney-failure-in-latino-and-african-american-groups/.

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StudyCorgi. (2022) 'Kidney Failure in Latino and African-American Groups'. 6 August.

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