Latin Americans and Cuban Immigrants

A brief history of the cultural group

  • First Hispanics in the 16th century
  • Immigrants from Latin American countries (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2014)
  • World Wars and immigration patterns
  • Political and economic factors of immigration
  • The Immigration Law of 1965
  • Immigration from Latin America after 2000

A brief history of the socio-cultural group

  • First Cuban immigrants since the 1550s
  • Economic factors of immigration since 1820
  • Political factors of immigration since 1820
  • Political factors of immigration after 1959 (Giger, 2014)
  • Immigration in the 21st century
  • Improvement of relations between the countries

Values of the cultural group

  • Familismoas the major value (Giger, 2014)
  • Respecto and the hierarchical culture
  • Collectivism in achieving the set goals
  • Machismo and Marianismo: Gender-related values (Dayer-Berenson, 2013)
  • Major Christian values are central.
  • Personalismo when communicating with others

Values of the socio-cultural group

  • Collectivist approach to addressing challenges (Giger, 2014)
  • Familismo is focusing on family ties.
  • Hierarchical culture implies respect for authority.
  • Machismo is the dominance of males.
  • Communication and interaction: Being pleasant
  • Mainly Roman Catholic values and beliefs

The worldview of the culture

  • Fatalism as views of the future (Purnell, 2014)
  • Authority is essential for any society.
  • The Church as the spiritual authority
  • Family bonds can never be broken.
  • Being polite is central to communication(Rinderle, 2012)
  • Being happy is the major priority.

Language and communication patterns of the cultural group

  • Spanish and its versions are used(Giger, 2014)
  • Politeness is essential for communication.
  • Animated facial expressions and expressive gestures
  • Touches are appropriate among close people.
  • Exaggeration is an accepted norm.
  • Focus on present (not future) issues

Language and communication patterns of the socio-cultural group (specific)

  • Spanish is the first language (Purnell, 2014)
  • Politeness and respect are essential.
  • Focus on recent topics and problems
  • Expressive body language even in public
  • Exaggeration is an accepted norm.
  • Close physical contact with close people

Art and other expressive forms of the cultural group

  • Murals are popular among some groups.
  • Famous authors publish highly-accepted books.
  • Popular Latin music is valued highly.
  • Soap operas TV series are popular.
  • Famous actors and actresses in Hollywood
  • Nationalist and politically resistive themes

Art and other expressive forms of the socio-cultural group

  • Cubano painters and political contexts
  • Nationalism in literature and journalism
  • Latin music and dance are popular.
  • Barrios fronts as an expressive art
  • Cuban American actors/actresses in Hollywood
  • Political and nationalist topics and themes

Norms and rules

  • Respect for the older generation (Purnell, 2014)
  • Norms associated with Catholic beliefs
  • Respect for supervisors and higher ranks
  • Relationships within families are patriarchal.
  • Public opinion is important for individuals.
  • Individuals are expected to fulfill obligations.

Lifestyle characteristics

  • The indulgence level is quite high (Giger, 2014)
  • Physical activity can be quite low.
  • Eating habits are often unhealthy.
  • Focus on accomplishments and success
  • Spending free time with close ones
  • Gender roles affect individuals’ lifestyles (Purnell, 2014)

Relationship patterns

  • Family bonds are regarded as essential.
  • Pre-marital sex is still stigmatized.
  • Respect is vital in treating people.
  • Children should be obedient and respectful.
  • Older generations respect young people.
  • Friendship is important for people.

Common rituals

  • Baptizing children is a common ritual (Purnell, 2014)
  • Childbirth is a family celebration.
  • Prayers are common in life-threatening situations.
  • Celebrating major Catholic holidays is common.
  • Celebrating quinceaneras is a common practice.
  • Celebrating days of saints is common.

Degree of assimilation from mainstream society

  • Hispanicsdo does not stand out physically (Dayer-Berenson, 2013)
  • Hispanics prefer speaking Spanish when possible.
  • Linguistic differences result in marginalization.
  • Christian values make Hispanics well-assimilated.
  • Focus on education helps to assimilate
  • Discrimination is still apparent (e.g., employment)

Degree of marginalization from mainstream society

  • Linguistic differences are major causes.
  • Hispanics often receive lower wages (Giger, 2014)
  • Hispanic males are seen as criminals.
  • Hispanics have fewer educational opportunities.
  • Economic issues contribute to social marginalization.
  • Hispanics are preferred, manual workers

Health behaviors and practices

  • Santeros are consulted in all cases (Purnell, 2014)
  • Biomedical healthcare professionals are also addressed.
  • Folk remedies are used in all cases.
  • Biomedical treatment is for serious cases.
  • Herbs are widely used in the treatment
  • The spiritual component is essential for healing.

Differential approaches needed by healthcare professionals for each group

  • Spanish language competency is needed.
  • Mexican and other dialects are different.
  • Respectful communication is vital for all.
  • Collaboration with folk healers is needed.
  • Collaboration with the family is needed.
  • Spiritual components should be considered.


Dayer-Berenson, L. (2013). Cultural competencies for nurses (2nd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

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Giger, J. (2014). Transcultural nursing: Assessment and intervention (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier/Mosby.

Purnell, L. (2014). Guide to culturally competent health care (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis.

Rinderle, S. (2012). Patient care strategies for a growing Latino/Hispanic population. Web.

Stanhope, M., & Lancaster, J. (2014). Public health nursing(8th ed.). Maryland Heights, MO: Elsevier Health Sciences.

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