A brief history of the cultural group
- First Hispanics in the 16th century
- Immigrants from Latin American countries (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2014)
- World Wars and immigration patterns
- Political and economic factors of immigration
- The Immigration Law of 1965
- Immigration from Latin America after 2000
A brief history of the socio-cultural group
- First Cuban immigrants since the 1550s
- Economic factors of immigration since 1820
- Political factors of immigration since 1820
- Political factors of immigration after 1959 (Giger, 2014)
- Immigration in the 21st century
- Improvement of relations between the countries
Values of the cultural group
- Familismoas the major value (Giger, 2014)
- Respecto and the hierarchical culture
- Collectivism in achieving the set goals
- Machismo and Marianismo: Gender-related values (Dayer-Berenson, 2013)
- Major Christian values are central.
- Personalismo when communicating with others
Values of the socio-cultural group
- Collectivist approach to addressing challenges (Giger, 2014)
- Familismo is focusing on family ties.
- Hierarchical culture implies respect for authority.
- Machismo is the dominance of males.
- Communication and interaction: Being pleasant
- Mainly Roman Catholic values and beliefs
The worldview of the culture
- Fatalism as views of the future (Purnell, 2014)
- Authority is essential for any society.
- The Church as the spiritual authority
- Family bonds can never be broken.
- Being polite is central to communication(Rinderle, 2012)
- Being happy is the major priority.
Language and communication patterns of the cultural group
- Spanish and its versions are used(Giger, 2014)
- Politeness is essential for communication.
- Animated facial expressions and expressive gestures
- Touches are appropriate among close people.
- Exaggeration is an accepted norm.
- Focus on present (not future) issues
Language and communication patterns of the socio-cultural group (specific)
- Spanish is the first language (Purnell, 2014)
- Politeness and respect are essential.
- Focus on recent topics and problems
- Expressive body language even in public
- Exaggeration is an accepted norm.
- Close physical contact with close people
Art and other expressive forms of the cultural group
- Murals are popular among some groups.
- Famous authors publish highly-accepted books.
- Popular Latin music is valued highly.
- Soap operas TV series are popular.
- Famous actors and actresses in Hollywood
- Nationalist and politically resistive themes
Art and other expressive forms of the socio-cultural group
- Cubano painters and political contexts
- Nationalism in literature and journalism
- Latin music and dance are popular.
- Barrios fronts as an expressive art
- Cuban American actors/actresses in Hollywood
- Political and nationalist topics and themes
Norms and rules
- Respect for the older generation (Purnell, 2014)
- Norms associated with Catholic beliefs
- Respect for supervisors and higher ranks
- Relationships within families are patriarchal.
- Public opinion is important for individuals.
- Individuals are expected to fulfill obligations.
- The indulgence level is quite high (Giger, 2014)
- Physical activity can be quite low.
- Eating habits are often unhealthy.
- Focus on accomplishments and success
- Spending free time with close ones
- Gender roles affect individuals’ lifestyles (Purnell, 2014)
- Family bonds are regarded as essential.
- Pre-marital sex is still stigmatized.
- Respect is vital in treating people.
- Children should be obedient and respectful.
- Older generations respect young people.
- Friendship is important for people.
- Baptizing children is a common ritual (Purnell, 2014)
- Childbirth is a family celebration.
- Prayers are common in life-threatening situations.
- Celebrating major Catholic holidays is common.
- Celebrating quinceaneras is a common practice.
- Celebrating days of saints is common.
Degree of assimilation from mainstream society
- Hispanicsdo does not stand out physically (Dayer-Berenson, 2013)
- Hispanics prefer speaking Spanish when possible.
- Linguistic differences result in marginalization.
- Christian values make Hispanics well-assimilated.
- Focus on education helps to assimilate
- Discrimination is still apparent (e.g., employment)
Degree of marginalization from mainstream society
- Linguistic differences are major causes.
- Hispanics often receive lower wages (Giger, 2014)
- Hispanic males are seen as criminals.
- Hispanics have fewer educational opportunities.
- Economic issues contribute to social marginalization.
- Hispanics are preferred, manual workers
Health behaviors and practices
- Santeros are consulted in all cases (Purnell, 2014)
- Biomedical healthcare professionals are also addressed.
- Folk remedies are used in all cases.
- Biomedical treatment is for serious cases.
- Herbs are widely used in the treatment
- The spiritual component is essential for healing.
Differential approaches needed by healthcare professionals for each group
- Spanish language competency is needed.
- Mexican and other dialects are different.
- Respectful communication is vital for all.
- Collaboration with folk healers is needed.
- Collaboration with the family is needed.
- Spiritual components should be considered.
Dayer-Berenson, L. (2013). Cultural competencies for nurses (2nd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
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Giger, J. (2014). Transcultural nursing: Assessment and intervention (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier/Mosby.
Purnell, L. (2014). Guide to culturally competent health care (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis.
Rinderle, S. (2012). Patient care strategies for a growing Latino/Hispanic population. Web.
Stanhope, M., & Lancaster, J. (2014). Public health nursing(8th ed.). Maryland Heights, MO: Elsevier Health Sciences.