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Lester Brown’s Plan B 4.0 for Saving the Planet

Global Ponzi Economy According to Brown

According to Brown, a Ponzi economy is an economy that is not self-sustainable due to the dependence on a wider range by investors who plow in their capital, and when the time of payment becomes due, the government experiences a deficit because of the higher payments from the returns hence leaving a deficit. The Ponzi economy talked about by Brown comes about due to the increased population, which has surpassed the general assets of what the earth is able to generate. The economy over the past year has grown faster hence depleting the available natural resources and therefore creating a big gap.

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The Ponzi state is dangerous and Brown advises on a close revisiting the market behaviors as the way forward to contain the situation whereby the indirect costs of production of goods and services will be included in the cost of the products and services, which will assist in filling the gap of the diminishing or rather depleting resources. Furthermore, he suggests close cooperation of visionary people and thinkers ranging from politicians, economists together with ecological economists to put their heads together to forge the best way out.

A New Materials Economy According to Brown

A new materials economy as referred to by Brown is the kind of economy that seeks to reduce the rate of carbon dioxide emissions through the adaption of different strategies aimed at reducing pollution and ensuring the sustainability of the available resources. This kind of economy aims at reducing the number of materials that are used in the industries by employing some conservation mechanisms. An example illustrated by Brown is plastic bags. Due to their negative impact on the environment and a long time of decomposing, many governments like China have plans to eradicate or even do away with them since they consume a lot of energy when recycled and pose a big challenge to the environment.

Strategies to stabilize population growth in developing countries

In developing countries like India, population growth can be reduced through the use of television, radio, and dramas like soap operas. Since many people watch television and listen to the radio, these soap operas with issues pertaining to family planning can assist to a greater magnitude in changing the perception of people towards embracing small families.

Universal Basic Education

Universal basic education means ensuring that all the children who have not been enrolled in school are enrolled. This program is important to the populations since it helps in reducing poverty by reducing the gap between the rich and the poor hence fostering development and stability.

A fossil aquifer and its agricultural use

A fossil aquifer refers to a big hole or a well from which people have extracted oil fossils. It might further mean an opening that remains after the mining of the oil products. These aquifers differ from groundwater in the sense that, groundwater seems easily available from rivers and lakes or from shallow wells. The water in these aquifers continues to deplete in many counties like Saudi Arabia, Israel, and among others who have depended on it for a long time for irrigation purposes. As they deplete they will lead to a reduction of products, which will lead to food scarcity.

Provide the name for the term for when the sun is reflected off of ice and explain its importance

Albedo is the name given to the reflection of the sun off by ice. This concept is of importance to the astrologist and climatologists as it aids in explaining the effects of the sunrays on the changes in climate.

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Define what a failing state is and why its failure is of importance to global environmental issues.

A failing state refers to a state, which lacks well-structured forms of governance. Such states experience many problems ranging from economic upheavals evidenced through low living standards, war, and crimes. This failure is important because it triggers the initiation of amicable remedies by the international body to intervene and help in reconstructing them hence enabling health and environment conducive to everyone as such states in one way or another affects the global community.

Please explain why Brown calls soil the foundation of civilization and discuss one soil concern that is threatening the foundation of civilization

Brown refers soil to as the foundation of civilization due to its value and its protective cover. Over cultivation forms one of the concerns that threaten the foundation of civilization. Human activities have intensified making the nutrition value of soil to reduce to a greater magnitude reducing productivity. The soils have been put to a lot of use to the point that they cannot produce adequate food productions thereby hampering their usefulness when it comes to agricultural use.

Define the recharge rate in terms of groundwater and discuss what problems arise when droughts or over-pumping of groundwater occurs

The recharge rate refers to the pace or rate at which water on the ground sinks down deep into the earth’s surface. Drought or over-pumping of groundwater poses a great danger to almost all aspects of life. It will lead to scarcity of water which implies that agriculture wild be affected leading to low food production. Furthermore, it causes death and loss of lives due to inadequate access to water.

What are the two major sources of greenhouse gasses?

The two major sources of greenhouse gasses include carbon dioxide, methane. Others include nitrous oxide and water vapor.

Define the term Peak Oil and provide one example that confirms the US has reached it

Peak oil refers to the threshold at which oil reserves face depletion. These scenarios arise due to the increased use of oil that seems available which leads to the scenario. The US has reached this peak as it has already established the foundation of a new technology, which will switch from the use of oil to gas-electric and electrical cars. The plan is underway and is expected to provide an alternative and reliable source of energy.

Provide one example of how smart grids differ from our current electrical management systems in the United States

Smart grids as opposed to the current electrical management system take or use the available technological advancements by facilitating the way electricity is distributed, shared, and/or generated. They provide easier use, allowing communications with the consumers on various issues pertaining to the services they are getting. In general, the smart grid offers a range of service and therefore value to the customers as opposed to the latter. Furthermore, the smart grids, unlike our current electrical management systems are able to eliminate any power disruptions and fluctuations, which could cost the US around 100 billion dollars in just a year.

Brown discusses two energy revolutions that are occurring in the United States simultaneously. Please describe these revolutions and what they entail

The two revolutions discussed by Brown are the transformation from old to new and most efficient technologies and the movement from reliance on oil, power, natural gas, and coal to that which will use geothermal energy, wind, and solar energy. An example of the efficient new theology is the compact fluorescent bulbs, which have the capability to consume a fifth of the electricity, which the older version incandescent bulbs were able to consume. On the other end, the reliance on wind and solar has generated greater returns compared to the fossils and coal and has reduced the environmental pollution caused by the emission of carbon dioxide.

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For example, the United States managed to produce more than 8400 megawatts when compared to 1400 megawatts they produced from coal. These revolutions are different from today’s forms of producing energy because they have less effect on the environment as carbon dioxide emissions will be reduced and have a greater capacity to produce energy that is sufficient and clean to stimulate the growth of the economy.

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)

LEED refers to a voluntary program run by the private sector known as the US Green building council dealing with certification and determination or ranks through its rating. It sets certain standards in building, which requires that the building meet certain standards in terms of the material used, environmental quality, and energy and water efficiency among others. An example of a building having a LEED gold rating is Toyota’s North American Headquarters in Torrance.

Ideas to better design a city

rate at which the population is increasing seems alarming with the number of people coming to the Pennsylvania city increasing on daily basis. The dilemma pushes me into providing my opinion on how our city should be designed in order to accommodate future trends for instance the adoption of alternative roads.

There is a need to redesign the roads which join the town to other cities in order to allow the free flow of vehicles in and outside the town. The roads need to be expanded and several roundabouts should be reduced or rather replaced with flyovers to ease traffic jams. Furthermore, the roads should be marked to give the drivers an easy time. This will also help in reducing the rate of accidents that have been witnessed in recent times.

In addition, it will also be able to address the influx number of citizens flocking in the city for the search for jobs. The establishment of commuter lanes can further assist when it comes to congestion in the cities. It is also important that the city roads should also include a lane for the commuters to avoid congestions in the city. These lanes will also make movements in the city faster apart from reducing the rate of accidents.

There should also be a plan to construct various packing’s outside the business district in order to avoid congestion in the city. A limited number of vehicles should be allowed to enter the central business district especially those ferrying consumer goods. This design will apart from ensuring that the city is safe and decongested, will offer security to the vehicles as they will be manned by security officers.

These changes if well adopted will enable the city to deal with the problem of congestion in the city. It will also contribute to eliminating or reducing the number of criminals since the design will provide an easier way of tracking down the criminals.

Apart from these, the design if approved will also reduce the rate of pollution on the environment as the toxics emitted from vehicles will have reduced. Therefore, the city will be a very clean and free from pollution place.

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