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Literature Evaluation on the Depression Illness

Bernaras, E., Jaureguizar, J., & Garaigordobil, M. (2019). Child and adolescent depression: A review of theories, evaluation instruments, prevention programs, and treatments. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(543), 1-24. Web. 

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The article centers on depression among children and teenagers, intending to provide a concise overview of effective prevention and treatment programs. In the methodology, the researchers undertook a qualitative analysis of the concept and descriptive theories of depressive disorders. The analysis provides a concise elucidation of the major assessment instruments employed in evaluating the problem in children and teenagers and effective prevention and treatment programs. Similar to the study by Cox et al. (2016), this study centered on the impact of depression on children and provided valuable information on the best means of addressing the problem. The strength of the study lies in its thorough tackling of depression, which is a significant source of illnesses and disabilities internationally. Though universal approaches could be suitable due to their wide range of applications, the outcomes of the research are not conclusive, and the article fails to offer any proof of efficacy. Nevertheless, despite the arising weakness, the article will provide valuable information on the research topic regarding the establishment of successful prevention programs at an early age.

Cox, E. Q., Sowa, N. A., Meltzer-Brody, S. E., & Gaynes, B. N. (2016). The perinatal depression treatment cascade: Baby steps toward improving outcomes. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 77(9), 1189-1200. Web.

The study focuses on the treatment and effective management of depression among pregnant women before and after birth, which raises challenging concerns regarding the baby’s safety. Pregnant women find it challenging to treat their depressive symptoms using medication before parturition and when breastfeeding. In the qualitative methodology, the study centered on diagnostic levels, treatment extents, quality of care, and degree of remission. Akin to the study by Bernaras et al. (2019), the researchers sought to establish the most effective treatment and prevention programs for depression. The study’s evaluation shows that it was widely researched and written in an approach that is easy for the layperson to comprehend. Nevertheless, the article did not thoroughly address the problem but superficially presented fundamental points. This source is valuable for use in the research topic since it underscores that the cascade model’s implementation provides numerous opportunities for the enhancement of perinatal depression management, ideal allotment of resources, and provision of quality treatment to such an undertreated and overlooked population.

Health Quality Ontario. (2017). Psychotherapy for major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder: A health technology assessment. Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series, 17(15), 1-167.

The researcher sought to establish the efficacy, safety, cost, effect, and patient outcomes associated with interpersonal, supportive, and cognitive-behavioral therapies in the treatment of anxiety and depressive disorders and evaluate whether such practices may be publicly financed. Generalized anxiety and major depressive disorders are the commonly diagnosed mental health problems linked to an increased monetary and social burden. Comparable to Olfson et al. (2016), the study discussed the treatment of depression, although it was more profound in its inclusion of anxiety disorder and comparison of group and individualized therapy. In the methodology, the research carried out interviews for people with generalized anxiety and depressive disorders to sufficiently comprehend the effect of the problem on their daily activities and the effectiveness of different treatment choices. This article’s strength is that it has incorporated a broad scope of reputable studies, which makes it credible. Nevertheless, the study appears overly long for a layperson to want to read it sufficiently. This source is valuable for the research topic since it establishes that group therapy is the most reasonably priced treatment alternative that could be publicly funded.

Lu, W. (2019). Adolescent depression: National trends, risk factors, and healthcare disparities. American Journal of Health Behavior, 43(1), 181-194. Web.

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The researcher asserted that depression arises from specific signs with associated problems that characterize mental health problems. Despite the availability of effective treatment, depression has been undertreated and underrecognized for a long time. The article aimed to assess national inclinations in the incidence, risk aspects, and management of the problem among teenagers while evaluating discrepancies in the mental health treatment provided in the United States. The study’s methodology analyzed data from 95,856 teenagers aged between 12 and 17 years who took part in a cross-sectional survey on substance use. The researcher focused on the effects and treatment of depression in adolescents, similar to the study by Oppenheimer et al. (2018). This research’s strength is that it thoroughly addresses the problem of depression among adolescents and recommends suitable treatment approaches. However, the study’s failure to employ the impact of the problem on children and adults could lead to the questioning of its reliability. This research will be valuable in the research topic to support the effective treatment of depression among adolescents. If left untreated, depression in adolescents results in considerable negative economic, social, and medical implications such as hostility, academic failure, drug abuse, dangerous sexual behavior, anxiety, divorce, and, in worst cases, suicide.

Olfson, M., Blanco, C., & Marcus, S. C. (2016). Treatment of adult depression in the United States. JAMA Internal Medicine, 176(10), 1482-1491. Web. 

The researchers’ highlight that most adults with depression do not obtain quality treatment for the underlying symptoms. The objective of the research was to assess the treatment of depressive disorders in the US. The methodology entailed the researchers undertaking the evaluation of distress, depressive disorders, and treatment from 46417 participants in the United States. Both health quality Ontario (2017) and Olfson et al. (2016) assessed the magnitude of depressive disorders and proposed the need for effective treatment. The researchers utilized a suitable sample size, which enhanced the generalizability of the results. However, the article did not adequately define recommendations that might assist in implementing treatment across all age groups. The source contributes to the research topic valuably because it highlights that many adults in the United States suffering from depression do not obtain adequate treatment. Attributable to the findings from the study, there is a need to reinforce endeavors to tailor the treatment for depressive disorders in line with every patient’s needs.

Oppenheimer, C. W., Hankin, B. L., & Young, J. (2018). Effect of parenting and peer stressors on cognitive vulnerability and risk for depression among youth. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 46(3), 597-612. Web. 

The researchers argue that parents are strong bases of support and encouragement during the teenage years, irrespective of parenting variations. An observational methodology was employed to evaluate both valuable and undesirable parenting factors during a lab social-dependent stressor approach. The source will be used in the research topic to demonstrate that a high proportion of available parenting programs should focus on externalizing pointers in children and teenagers while considering the application of contingencies of support, monitoring, and problem-solving skills. This study is comparable to the one by Lu (2019) since both underscore the impact of depression among adolescents. However, this research is different because it highlights parents’ contribution to the development of depressive disorder among the youth. The weakness of the study lies in the likelihood of prejudiced interpretations of interrelations with parents and possible stressors. However, its strength lies in bridging the gap regarding stress-eliciting factors among children who are becoming teens and providing effective interventions.

Sinyor, M., Rezmovitz, J., & Zaretsky, A. (2016). Screen all for depression. The British Medical Journal, 352(1617), 1-10. Web. 

The main idea of this article is that depression is a widespread and often overwhelming condition. The method entailed trials of 2924 respondents who represented the impact of screening in the grownup populace. The strength of the study is in its use of an adequate sample size, which improves the credibility of the task. Nevertheless, it fails to uphold recommendations on the most effective treatment approach and does not prove that the screening practice boosts patient outcomes. Both Olfson et al. (2016) and Sinyor et al. (2016) provide effective screening of depressive disorders among people in the US population intending to lessen mortality and morbidity. This study is helpful in the research topic because it underlines that major depressive disorder represents about 3% of disability-regulated years internationally and is the leading mental health problem for individuals who commit suicide.

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Stark, A., Kaduszkiewicz, H., Stein, J., Maier, W., Heser, K., Weyerer, S., Werle, J., Wiese, B., Mamone, S., König, H., & Bock, J. O. (2018). A qualitative study on older primary care patients’ perspectives on depression and its treatments-potential barriers to and opportunities for managing depression. BMC Family Practice, 19(1), 1-10. Web. 

The researchers highlight that patients’ perspectives on depression are fundamental towards assistance-seeking and quality treatment. Semi-structured interview questions were used in the qualitative data collection from 12 participants aged 75 years and above, who were suffering from depressive disorders. Akin to Olfoson et al. (2016), the researchers established that although depression is underdiagnosed and undertreated, it is among the most widespread mental health problems in older adults. The article will be necessary for the research topic since it will offer the affirmation that depression in older adults is linked to cognitive impairment and numerous health problems. The strength of this research is in its excellent grasp of the positive perceptions of older adults towards successfully addressing depressive disorders, in addition to the practices that could hamper ideal treatment. Nonetheless, the sample size was inadequate, and the researchers cannot be confident of having successfully obtained the perspectives of older adults concerning the impact of depression and its treatment.

Vrijen, C., Hartman, C. A., & Oldehinkel, A. J. (2016). Slow identification of facial happiness in early adolescence predicts the onset of depression during 8 years of follow-up. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 25(11), 1255-1266. Web. 

The researchers uphold that depression is a widespread mental health disorder among teenagers. Data was gathered in line with the Tracking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey and included 1840 teenage participants subjected to a facial emotion detection assessment. Although different from other studies that focus on the impact of depression on children and older adults, this research is similar to the ones undertaken by Oppenheimer et al. (2018), Lu (2019), and Weitkamp et al. (2016). They all articulate that this mental health problem places an overwhelming burden on teenagers suffering from it and is challenging to treat. The source is fundamental for the research topic since it will underline that enhanced comprehension of adolescent depression is helpful for timely detection and effective treatment. An adequate sample size used in the research improves the credibility and generalizability of the study. However, despite the suggestion of facial emotion recognition as an indicator of depressive disorders, the results were not conclusive.

Weitkamp, K., Klein, E., & Midgley, N. (2016). The experience of depression: A qualitative study of adolescents with depression entering psychotherapy. Global Qualitative Nursing Research, 3(1), 1-12. Web. 

The research aimed to discover the problem of depression and the effectiveness of therapy among young people who suffer from a mental health disorder. The researchers undertook semi-structured interviews with six young individuals and analyzed the data with Interpretative Phenomenological Examination. Although this article did not center on the treatment of the problem like some others on the same topic, both Vrijen et al. (2016) and Weitkamp et al. (2016) focused on the underlying issues of depression among adolescents. The source will be paramount in the research topic since it underscores the significance of addressing stigma in support of mental health knowledge among young people, parents, caregivers, and school administration. The strength of the article is in its provision of crucial details regarding the promotion of mental health, such as tackling stigmatization, which makes it possible for future researchers to expand the study. Nonetheless, the use of an inadequate sample, and only one male participant, fails to uphold diversity and negatively affects the credibility of the research.

References

Bernaras, E., Jaureguizar, J., & Garaigordobil, M. (2019). Child and adolescent depression: A review of theories, evaluation instruments, prevention programs, and treatments. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(543), 1-24. Web.

Cox, E. Q., Sowa, N. A., Meltzer-Brody, S. E., & Gaynes, B. N. (2016). The perinatal depression treatment cascade: Baby steps toward improving outcomes. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 77(9), 1189-1200.

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Health Quality Ontario. (2017). Psychotherapy for major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder: A health technology assessment. Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series, 17(15), 1-167.

Lu, W. (2019). Adolescent depression: National trends, risk factors, and healthcare disparities. American Journal of Health Behavior, 43(1), 181-194. Web.

Olfson, M., Blanco, C., & Marcus, S. C. (2016). Treatment of adult depression in the United States. JAMA Internal Medicine, 176(10), 1482-1491. Web.

Oppenheimer, C. W., Hankin, B. L., & Young, J. (2018). Effect of parenting and peer stressors on cognitive vulnerability and risk for depression among youth. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 46(3), 597-612. Web.

Sinyor, M., Rezmovitz, J., & Zaretsky, A. (2016). Screen all for depression. The British Medical Journal, 352(1617), 1-10. Web.

Stark, A., Kaduszkiewicz, H., Stein, J., Maier, W., Heser, K., Weyerer, S., Werle, J., Wiese, B., Mamone, S., König, H., & Bock, J. O. (2018). A qualitative study on older primary care patients’ perspectives on depression and its treatments-potential barriers to and opportunities for managing depression. BMC Family Practice, 19(1), 1-10. Web.

Vrijen, C., Hartman, C. A., & Oldehinkel, A. J. (2016). Slow identification of facial happiness in early adolescence predicts the onset of depression during 8 years of follow-up. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 25(11), 1255-1266. Web.

Weitkamp, K., Klein, E., & Midgley, N. (2016). The experience of depression: A qualitative study of adolescents with depression entering psychotherapy. Global Qualitative Nursing Research, 3(1), 1-12. Web.

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