Logical Fallacies and Sound Arguments in Introduction

Introduction

The purpose of this paper is to examine various logical fallacies to avoid when developing an introduction. First, an introduction with fallacious arguments will be presented. In the next section, those fallacious arguments will be identified and discussed using margin comments. Finally, a revised version of the introduction will be presented using sound arguments.

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Introduction with Fallacious Arguments

The current educational model adopted in the majority of elementary schools in the USA is highly inefficient and provokes negative outcomes in the students’ performance. According to statistic data, in 2012, the US students’ performance in mathematics was below average. Therefore, the departmentalized structure can unarguably provide a better way of teaching.

According to researchers’ claims, the generalized or self-contained model implemented in the schools provokes many problems both for teachers and students (Diamond, Maerten-Rivera, & Rohrer, 2013; Strohl, Schmertzing, & Schmertzing, 2014; Nelson, 2014). In the self-contained settings, a group of students receives instructions on the multiple subjects from the same teacher every day. Although the generalized organization is implemented in the majority of elementary schools across the country, the previous research papers have indicated some disadvantages of the given model that affect the teacher’s and students’ performance negatively (Strohl, Schmertzing, Schmertzing, & Hsiao, 2014). The negative results on teachers include the lack of in-depth knowledge of subjects, heavy workloads, low self-efficacy, and a high level of stress that leads to a decline in job satisfaction (Stewart, 2015). Based on this evidence, the schools’ administration should implement the alternative models of education, i.e. departmentalization.

The findings and observations demonstrated in the statistic reports and the previous research make it clear that the elementary education model’s efficiency is an up-to-date issue, and the alternative educational structures must be investigated. Departmentalization of elementary school can be regarded as a potential method for the existing dilemmas resolving (Strohl, Schmertzing, Schmertzing, & Hsiao). Evaluation of the positive and negative impacts on the teaching and learning processes is of increasing interest and importance because it can support the detection of the areas that need to be improved, and the understanding of how these improvements are to be made.

According to Nelson (2014), teaching in departmentalized settings provokes teachers’ professional development (p. 8). In opposition to teaching in the self-contained model, the different groups of students receive instructions from the same specialist in one class. When the educational process is organized this way, teachers are provided with sufficient time for the lessons’ preparation and design (Strohl, Schmertzing, & Schmertzing, 2014). Other advantages of departmentalization include the decrease of workloads that reduce the chance of teachers’ burnouts, higher level of professionalism and knowledge of the subject content, improvement of teachers’ professional self-perception and confidence (Strohl, Schmertzing, Schmertzing, & Hsiao). After a transition towards the departmentalized organization of education in elementary schools, the students’ performance will be drastically enhanced because of the positive changes in the teachers’ functioning and abilities.

Although there is a sufficient amount of investigation devoted to the impacts on the teachers’ efficacy in the departmentalized settings, the findings in the research of changes in students’ performance in this educational structure are controversial. The lack of arguments and clear-cut facts about the departmentalization’s positive impacts on students’ level of knowledge create the obstacles for the adoption and recognition of the model by the schools’ administration.

According to Parker (2009), in the period of transition from the self-contained form of education to the secondary departmentalized structure, the students are exposed to stress that interferes with their successful acclimatization in the new educational environment and absorption of knowledge (p. 325). As a result, academic performance may be deteriorated. The students’ performance in mathematics and science classes is low in both elementary and secondary school. The adult U.S. citizens are not interested in science and cannot make a contribution to the American and global society.

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Based on the results of the literature review, it is possible to say that the further research of the issues related to the improvement of the students’ self-perception, abilities to learn and absorb knowledge, communicate with peers and adults, and perform in the variety of subjects in the one-content settings will help to provide more evidence for the potentials of the model. The research needs to investigate the causal factors that influence the improvement of the students learning abilities. It may support verification of the previous research results and may stimulate the model’s acceptance in schools.

Identifying the Fallacies

The current educational model adopted in the majority of elementary schools in the USA is highly inefficient and provokes negative outcomes in the students’ performance.

Fallacy

The statement isn’t valid and is not properly defended. The relevance rule is violated. Some numbers or statistics could be used to advance the argument.

According to statistic data, in 2012, the US students’ performance in mathematics was below average. Therefore, the departmentalized structure can unarguably provide a better way of teaching.

Fallacy

The freedom rule is violated. The statement is arguable.

According to researchers’ claims, the generalized or self-contained model implemented in the schools provokes many problems both for teachers and students (Diamond, Maerten-Rivera, & Rohrer, 2013; Strohl, Schmertzing, & Schmertzing, 2014; Nelson, 2014). In the self-contained settings, a group of students receives instructions on the multiple subjects from the same teacher every day. Although the generalized organization is implemented in the majority of elementary schools across the country, the previous research papers have indicated some disadvantages of the given model that affect the teacher’s and students’ performance negatively (Strohl, Schmertzing, Schmertzing, & Hsiao, 2014). The negative results on teachers include the lack of in-depth knowledge of subjects, heavy workloads, low self-efficacy, and a high level of stress that leads to a decline in job satisfaction (Stewart, 2015). Based on this evidence, the schools’ administration should implement the alternative models of education, i.e. departmentalization.

Fallacy

The argument scheme isn’t applied correctly. The conclusion made in the paragraph cannot lacks credibility, and the claims do not necessarily lead to this conclusion.

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The findings and observations demonstrated in the statistic reports and the previous research make it clear that the elementary education model’s efficiency is an up-to-date issue, and the alternative educational structures must be investigated. Departmentalization of elementary school can be regarded as a potential method for the existing dilemmas resolving (Strohl, Schmertzing, Schmertzing, & Hsiao). Evaluation of the positive and negative impacts on the teaching and learning processes is of increasing interest and importance because it can support the detection of the areas that need to be improved, and the understanding of how these improvements are to be made.

According to Nelson (2014), teaching in departmentalized settings provokes teachers’ professional development (p. 8). In opposition to teaching in the self-contained model, the different groups of students receive instructions from the same specialist in one class. When the educational process is organized this way, teachers are provided with sufficient time for the lessons’ preparation and design (Strohl, Schmertzing, & Schmertzing, 2014). Other advantages of departmentalization include the decrease of workloads that reduce the chance of teachers’ burnouts, higher level of professionalism and knowledge of the subject content, improvement of teachers’ professional self-perception and confidence (Strohl, Schmertzing, Schmertzing, & Hsiao). After a transition towards the departmentalized organization of education in elementary schools, the students’ performance will be drastically enhanced because of the positive changes in the teachers’ functioning and abilities.

Fallacy

Poor argumentation. Lack of evidence.

Although there is a sufficient amount of investigation devoted to the impacts on the teachers’ efficacy in the departmentalized settings, the findings in the research of changes in students’ performance in this educational structure are controversial. The lack of arguments and clear-cut facts about the departmentalization’s positive impacts on students’ level of knowledge create the obstacles for the adoption and recognition of the model by the schools’ administration.

According to Parker (2009), in the period of transition from the self-contained form of education to the secondary departmentalized structure, the students are exposed to stress that interferes with their successful acclimatization in the new educational environment and absorption of knowledge (p. 325). As a result, academic performance may be deteriorated. The students’ performance in mathematics and science classes is low in both elementary and secondary school. The adult U.S. citizens are not interested in science and cannot make a contribution to the American and global society.

Fallacy

No relevance to the theme of the paper.

Based on the results of the literature review, it is possible to say that the further research of the issues related to the improvement of the students’ self-perception, abilities to learn and absorb knowledge, communicate with peers and adults, and perform in the variety of subjects in the one-content settings will help to provide more evidence for the potentials of the model. The research needs to investigate the causal factors that influence the improvement of the students learning abilities. It may support verification of the previous research results and may stimulate the model’s acceptance in schools.

Introduction with Sound Arguments

According to statistic data, in 2012, the US students’ performance in mathematics was below average. Among all the thirty-four countries represented in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), such as Germany, Japan, and Israel, the United States was ranked only twenty-seventh (Results from PISA, 2012).

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The statistical numbers make it clear that the current US educational system may be regarded as ineffective and inefficient. Many researchers see the ground of the problem in the commonly accepted elementary school teaching model that is called a self-contained or generalized model (Diamond, Maerten-Rivera, & Rohrer, 2013; Strohl, Schmertzing, & Schmertzing, 2014; Nelson, 2014). In the self-contained settings, a group of students receives instructions on the multiple subjects from the same teacher every day. Although the generalized organization is implemented in the majority of elementary schools across the country, the previous research papers have indicated some disadvantages of the given model that affect the teacher’s and students’ performance negatively (Strohl, Schmertzing, Schmertzing, & Hsiao, 2014). The negative results on teachers include the lack of in-depth knowledge of subjects, heavy workloads, low self-efficacy, and a high level of stress that leads to a decline in job satisfaction (Stewart, 2015). Since the teachers play a crucial role in the effectiveness of the knowledge transition to students, their inability to perform at a high level negatively affects the students’ performance in class as well.

The findings and observations demonstrated in the statistic reports and the previous research make it clear that the elementary education model’s efficiency is an up-to-date issue, and the alternative educational structures must be investigated. Departmentalization of elementary school can be regarded as a potential method for the existing dilemmas resolving (Strohl, Schmertzing, Schmertzing, & Hsiao). Evaluation of the positive and negative impacts on the teaching and learning processes is of increasing interest and importance because it can support the detection of the areas that need to be improved, and the understanding of how these improvements are to be made.

According to Nelson (2014), teaching in departmentalized settings provokes teachers’ professional development (p. 8). In opposition to teaching in the self-contained model, the different groups of students receive instructions from the same specialist in one class. When the educational process is organized this way, teachers are provided with sufficient time for the lessons’ preparation and design (Strohl, Schmertzing, & Schmertzing, 2014). Other advantages of departmentalization include the decrease of workloads that reduce the chance of teachers’ burnouts, higher level of professionalism and knowledge of the subject content, improvement of teachers’ professional self-perception and confidence (Strohl, Schmertzing, Schmertzing, & Hsiao). The claims in the multiple studies show that after the transition towards the departmentalized organization of education in some elementary schools, the students’ performance has drastically enhanced mainly because of the positive changes in the teachers’ functioning and abilities (Nelson, 2014; Stewart, 2015).

Although there is a sufficient amount of investigation devoted to the impacts on the teachers’ efficacy in the departmentalized settings, the findings in the research of changes in students’ performance in this educational structure are controversial. The lack of arguments and clear-cut facts about the departmentalization’s positive impacts on students’ level of knowledge create the obstacles for the adoption and recognition of the model by the schools’ administration.

According to Parker (2009), in the period of transition from the self-contained form of education to the secondary departmentalized structure, the students are exposed to stress that interferes with their successful acclimatization in the new educational environment and absorption of knowledge (p. 325). As a result, academic performance may be deteriorated. Therefore, it is possible to say, that implementation of departmentalization in elementary education can enhance the situation in a secondary school as well because, in this case, the students will become familiar with the modes and standards of studying and communication accepted in the middle-school.

Based on the results of the literature review, it is possible to say that the further research of the issues related to the improvement of the students’ self-perception, abilities to learn and absorb knowledge, communicate with peers and adults, and perform in the variety of subjects in the one-content settings will help to provide more evidence for the potentials of the model. The research needs to investigate the causal factors that influence the improvement of the students learning abilities. It may support verification of the previous research results and may stimulate the model’s acceptance in schools.

References

Diamond, B. S., Maerten-Rivera, J., & Rohrer, R. (2013). Elementary teachers’ science content knowledge: Relationships among multiple measures. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 51, 1-20.

Nelson, K. (2014). A Study Comparing Fifth Grade Student Achievement in Mathematics in Departmentalized and Non-Departmentalized Settings. Doctoral Dissertations and Projects, 829, 1-194. Web.

Parker, A. K. (2009). Elementary organizational structures and young adolescents’ self-concept and classroom environment perceptions across the transition to middle school. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 23(3), 325-339. Web.

Results from PISA. (2012). Web.

Stewart, L. L. (2015). Teachers’ perspectives on self-contained and departmentalized instructional models. Web.

Strohl, A., Schmertzing, L., & Schmertzing, R. (2014). Elementary teachers’ experiences and perceptions of departmentalized instruction: A case study. Journal of Case Studies in Education, 6, 1-17.

Strohl, A., Schmertzing, L., Schmertzing, R., & Hsiao, E. (2014). Comparison of self-contained and departmentalized elementary teachers’ perceptions of classroom structure and job satisfaction. Journal of Studies in Education, 4(1), 109-127.

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StudyCorgi. (2020, November 3). Logical Fallacies and Sound Arguments in Introduction. Retrieved from https://studycorgi.com/logical-fallacies-and-sound-arguments-in-introduction/

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"Logical Fallacies and Sound Arguments in Introduction." StudyCorgi, 3 Nov. 2020, studycorgi.com/logical-fallacies-and-sound-arguments-in-introduction/.

1. StudyCorgi. "Logical Fallacies and Sound Arguments in Introduction." November 3, 2020. https://studycorgi.com/logical-fallacies-and-sound-arguments-in-introduction/.


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StudyCorgi. "Logical Fallacies and Sound Arguments in Introduction." November 3, 2020. https://studycorgi.com/logical-fallacies-and-sound-arguments-in-introduction/.

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StudyCorgi. 2020. "Logical Fallacies and Sound Arguments in Introduction." November 3, 2020. https://studycorgi.com/logical-fallacies-and-sound-arguments-in-introduction/.

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StudyCorgi. (2020) 'Logical Fallacies and Sound Arguments in Introduction'. 3 November.

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