Wieden, A. (2016). Writing resistance: Anonyma’s narration of rape in A woman in Berlin. Women in German Yearbook, 32, 25-49. Web.
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This publication is an autobiography that gives firsthand accounts of World War II German rape victims. Anonyma, the narrator, recounts her rape experiences when men were helpless witnesses of the brutality that was being meted on their sisters and mothers by the Russian Army. Throughout the text, the narration takes many shifts to show how hesitant the writer was to put the rape experiences to writing. This source is significant to my paper as it will provide personal accounts of the rape experiences that German women underwent at the hands of the Soviet Army.
Buss, D. E. (2009). Rethinking ‘rape as a weapon of war’. Feminist Legal Studies, 17(2), 145-163. Web.
This article underscores the fact that rape, a common occurrence during the war, is always a targeted policy as opposed to a simple by-product. For this reason, wartime rape needs to be prosecuted as a crime against humanity across the world. Indeed, rape is a weapon of war, and this article covers it as an important development for a global legal feminist engagement with law. This source helps my research as it provides a case study of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) and how it has examined rape in the time of the 1994 genocide.
Chiasson, C. L. (2015). Silenced voices: Sexual violence during and after World War II (Bachelor’s Thesis). Web.
This thesis covers the happenings around sexual violence in the period during and after the World War II. The main focus of this source is on the European Theater of World War II. The central sexual violence theme which this thesis examines is forcible rape. This source is important to my paper since it uses the primary sources of diaries, memoirs, and journals to provide a comprehensive view of rape during wartime, which helps to put the topic into context.
FitzGerald., N. (2002). Berliners recall Red Army atrocities. Chicago Tribune. Web.
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This article recounts the Red Army’s atrocities in Berlin on their arrival in the city in April 1945. The victim, Magda Wieland, recalls being raped by a teenage soldier, followed by many others. This personal narrative of the victim adds to Germany’s growing movement focusing on how much their women were victimized. This source will add the context of personal accounts of rape victims, further revealing how wartime rape is a weapon of war.
Grant, L. (2005) The rubble women. The Guardian. Web.
This article provides a shocking account of sexual violence incidents experienced in Germany during the fall of Berlin. During the Second World War, there were frenzied attacks in Berlin when the Red Army raided the city. This article’s information was a publication of the diaries written by victims of sexual violence during the war. This article is vital to my research as it analyzes personal accounts of these horrific incidents’ narrators.
Jones, J. A. (2013). Addressing the use of sexual violence as a strategic weapon of war. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse, 5(04). Web.
This article examines how sexual violence, particularly rape, has been a strategic weapon of war in wartime occasions, such as genocide operations. This source is a contextual analysis of how rape can be a war weapon due to its physical and psychological effects on the victims. This source is significant to my paper as it will lay the foundation for studying how the Soviet Army used rape in warfare and how it is a crime against humanity.
Mark, J. (2005). Remembering rape: Divided social memory and the Red Army in Hungary 1944-1945. Past & Present, 188(1), 133-161.
This article is a historical record of the sexual atrocities committed by the Red Army in Hungary. This was after the perpetrators had committed the same crimes in Germany, another ally of the Axis powers. This source will help me put the populist accounts of the Red Army’s behavior in Central Europe. The Soviet Union used rape as a weapon of war to force the allies of Axis powers to withdraw their support, so the Soviet Union sternly defended these atrocities.
Naimark, N. (1995). The Russians in Germany: A history of the Soviet Zone of occupation, 1945-1949. Harvard University Press.
This book reveals the recorded accounts of rape and how Russian soldiers were propagating this sexual violence with impunity. Many women became pregnant, and others had to live with the pain of enduring the horrific experience. However, these victims got little solace from their men by helping them heal from the emotional wounds of the Second World War. This source will add the necessary detail to my paper as it provides a chronological record of the Russians in Germany.
Roberts, A. (2008). Stalin’s army of rapists: The brutal war crime that Russia and Germany tried to ignore. Mail Online. Web.
This article examines the happenings during the Second World War that led to strained relations between Russia and Germany. In this article, close reference is done to the diary kept by Marta Hillers, a German journalist who was a rape victim, and the movie A Woman in Berlin. In April 1945, the Red Army captured the Third Reich’s capital, committing various crimes against humanity, including rape. This source is important to my paper because it provides firsthand accounts of the sexual violence victims, for example, Marta Hillers.
Thomas, K. I. (2007). Politics of history and memory: The Russian rape of Germany in Berlin, 1945. Historia. Web.
This article discusses an event that was initially thought of as full of promise and hope turned out to be one of the most painful experiences in Germany’s history. In the spring of 1945, the Russian Red Army marched into Eastern Europe for what was thought as a positive turning point in the Second World War. However, the result was resentment and anger as the army raped many German women. This source is important to my paper since it illustrates how wartime sexual violence was retaliatory and exploitative.