The area of what is now the City of Miami was settled by numerous tribes more than 4, 000 years ago (City Data, 2017a). The name Miami stems from the word Mayami (Big Water) used by the chief tribe populating the region (City Data, 2017a). The native tribes were exterminated by Spanish conquistadors in the early eighteenth century (City Data, 2017a). Spain ceded to the United States by Spain after the American Revolution (City Data, 2017a). The city was officially founded in 1836 (City Data, 2017a). The community is an urban agglomeration.
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Physical Environmental Considerations: The Community as a Place
Description: general identifying data and boundaries
The community is located in the southeast of the State of Florida. The city borders with Biscayne Bay on the east (City Data, 2017b). The city is covered by beaches and sparsely wooded regions. Miami is connected to Lake Okeechobee by the Okeechobee Waterway. Climate is semi-tropical with plentiful rainfall and dry winters (City Data, 2017b). The area is 55.27 square miles (City Data, 2017b).
Biscayne Aquifer is a source of water supply. The city is located only 40 feet above sea level; therefore, it suffers from sewage overflow during tropical storms (City Data, 2017c). The city’s disposal system manages more than 2.1 million metric tons of garbage annually (City Data, 2017c). The system consists of 2 landfills, 3 Miami-Dade County transfer stations, and a resource recovery facility (RRF) (City Data, 2017c). Pollution indexes are as follows: 28.95 air pollution (low), drinking water pollution 36.29 (low), and noise and light pollution 54.55 (moderate). The overall pollution index is 41.12 (Numbeo, 2017). The index of quality of flora is 66.94, which is high (Numbeo, 2017). The index of air quality is 71.05 (high), no color, no odor, no particulates (Numbeo, 2017). Local foodservice distribution companies such as Gordon Food Service, Southeastern Food Supplies, and Sherwood Food Distributors provide the city with fresh supplies.
Potential disasters that might affect the community include, but are not limited to, hurricanes, chemical emergencies, droughts, earthquakes, fires, floods, epidemics, and landslides. According to the information displayed on the official website of the City of Miami, the community is prepared for managing disasters in all kinds of emergencies (City of Miami, 2016). The city officials actively collaborate with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to enhance active shooter preparedness though “a whole community approach by providing training, products, and resources to a broad range of stakeholders” (City of Miami, 2016, para. 4). A large portion of the community’s emergency management resources has been allocated for the preparedness measures in case of the outbreaks of the Zika virus and hurricanes (City of Miami, 2016, para. 4).
192 housing units in Miami were built in 2014 or later. 19, 820 housing units were built in 1939 or earlier (United States Census Bureau, 2017a). 48, 735 housing units in Miami are owner-occupied, which is less than 25 percent of total housing units (United States Census Bureau, 2017a). The homeowner vacancy rate is 3.7; the rental vacancy rate is 7.0 (United States Census Bureau, 2017a). Like any other big city in the USA, Miami is characterized by high real estate prices.
Leading industries and occupations
The city’s economy is presented by the following sectors: tourism, services, manufacturing, trade, construction, and real estate (Encyclopedia, 2016). Major employers include 170 multinational companies and federal and state governments (Encyclopedia, 2016). The manufacturing industry, agricultural industry, and film and entertainment industry are substantial sources of income for the community. The film and entertainment industry generates more than $200 million annually. (Encyclopedia, 2016). The total value of annually produced crops in the region is $81 million (Encyclopedia, 2016). The major industries in the manufacturing sector of Miami’s economy include the apparel industry, metal fabrication industry, printing industry, and the medical industry (Encyclopedia, 2016). Numerous international banks and investment centers are other sources of economic development of the city.
The People of the Community
The total population for 2010 (the year of the last census) is 399, 457 people (United States Census Bureau, 2017b). The area is characterized by high population density. In the past 10 years, the population increased by 18.7 percent (City Data, 2017d). The increase is mainly due to immigration to the area. Hispanic immigrants contribute to population growth in the area. The population per square miles is12, 063 people (City Data, 2017d).
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Biological considerations/vital and demographic population characteristics
Border limits of the age composition of the total population are 23, 882 residents under 5 years of age, and 9, 165 residents who are 85 years and older (United States Census Bureau, 2017b). The median age of the city’s residents is 38.8 years (United States Census Bureau, 2017b). 198, 927 males and 200, 520 females resided in Miami as of 2010 (United States Census Bureau, 2017b). The race distribution of Miami is as follows: 289, 920 Whites, 76, 880 African Americans, 1, 195 American Indians and Alaska Natives, 3, 953 Asians, 1, 206 Asian Indians, 1, 084 Chinese, 647 Filipinos, 245 Japanese, 213 Koreans, 125 Vietnamese, 433 other Asians, 85 native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islanders, 13 Guamanians, 8 Samoans, and 16, 684 residents of some other race (United States Census Bureau, 2017b). The ethnic composition and distribution of Miami are as follows: White 71. 8 percent, Black 27.4 percent, American Indian 0.2 percent, Asian 0.6 percent, and Hispanics 6. 25 percent (Encyclopedia, 2016).
According to March of Dimes (2016), “in Miami-Dade County in 2006, the rate of perinatal mortality was 7.3 per 1, 000 live births and fetal deaths” (para 4). In 2013, 136 infants died before the age of one year (March of Dimes, 2016). Leading causes of infant morbidity include birth defects, sudden infant death syndrome, prematurity, and respiratory distress syndrome (March of Dimes, 2016). Cardiovascular disorders are the major causes of deaths in the area.
Significant historical events include the cession to the U.S. from Spain in 1821, the start of industrial development in 1870, the foundation of Miami Beach in 1915, a devastating hurricane that killed 243 people in 1926, and a visit of Nelson Mandela in 1990 (City Data, 2017a). International banking and IT industry are sources of future economic development (Encyclopedia, 2016). The existing formal and informal communication networks include telephone networks (PSTN), ISDN, Mobile telephone networks, telex networks, paging networks, public data networks, the Internet, radio and television networks, professional mobile radio (PMR), and virtual private networks (Encyclopedia, 2016). The city has 1, 450 full-time law enforcement officers (City Data, 2017e). The rate of officers per 1, 000 residents is 2. 72 (City Data, 2017e). The common sources of stress are the lack of affordable housing, marginalization, lack of income opportunities, decreased access to health care, and decreased access to high-quality education (Encyclopedia, 2016). The rate of unemployed people is closely connected with the lack of affordable education and healthcare services.
Sociocultural considerations: the community as a social system
195, 577 city residents are employed in agriculture, construction, manufacturing, retail, transportation, finance, entertainment, and real estate sectors of the economy among others (United States Census Bureau, 2017c). The estimated level of unemployment is 24, 047 people. People speak English, Spanish, and Chinese among others. Public educational establishments available include public K-12 schools, charter schools, and Miami-Dade Community College among others. Private educational facilities include the University of Miami, Barry and St. Thomas University, and the New World School of Arts among others. 133,369 city residents commute to work in a car, truck, or van (alone) (United States Census Bureau, 2017c). 17, 433 city residents commute to work in a car, truck, or van (carpool) (United States Census Bureau, 2017c). A healthy diet rate is 50.1 percent (City Data, 2017d). Popular leisure activities include swing, surfing, and roller-blading among others.
Health System Considerations
Existing services include “emergency assistance, mental health care, substance abuse treatment and prevention, homeless shelter, veteran services, and other traditional social services” (City Data, 2017f, para. 1). The underuse of care for conditions such as diabetes and heart disease and overuse of MRI’s are common for the city. The underuse is mainly associated with the socioeconomic status of people and the accessibility of healthcare services. Such groups as immigrants and Americans living below the poverty line are the most vulnerable populations.
City Data. (2017a). Miami: History. Web.
City Data. (2017b). Miami: Geography and climate. Web.
City Data. (2017c). Miami: Environment. Web.
City Data. (2017d). Miami, Florida. Web.
City Data. (2017e). Crime rate in Miami, Florida. Web.
City Data. (2017f). Miami: Health care. Web.
City of Miami. (2016). Emergency management. Web.
Encyclopedia. (2016). Miami. Web.
March of Dimes. (2016). Quick facts: Mortality. Web.
Numbeo. (2017). Pollution in Miami, FL, United States. Web.
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United States Census Bureau. (2017a). Selected housing characteristics. Web.
United States Census Bureau. (2017b). Profile of general population and housing characteristics: 2010. Web.
United States Census Bureau. (2017c). Selected economic characteristics: 2011-2015. Web.