The article “Misconceptions of Gender: Sex, Masculinity, and the Measurement of Crime” by J.W., Cohen, and J. Harvey analysis the problem of misconceptions related to crime and disobedience. The authors claim that previous studies lack a theoretical bass paying attention to statistical numbers only. By submitting the process of procreation and rearing to a strict division of labor, nature has equipped the female with all the possibilities of enclosing, sheltering, and feeding the growing embryo. Gender has in ways been misunderstand in criminal science. The research states that gender should be analyzed and assessed in terms of social relations rather than simple statistical data of crimes. During this period only defensive traits of the mother can protect the frailties of the embryo and the young. This organically rooted protective attitude includes predatory and aggressive tendencies that spring to light as soon as the offspring is threatened. Because she is the bearer of the delicate nascent life, females are fitted for a sedentary existence where their surplus of vitality can be used for the building of the new generation. The female deviates less from the norm than the male; she shows a higher recuperative and regenerative ability. She lives longer. Despite the strain of passing through a long series of bodily crises, her insanity and suicide rates are lower. When nature equipped the male with a powerful muscular apparatus she presented the female with a more resistant nervous system and greater inviolability. Being exploited organically by the generative process and the growing child, the female, in turn, exploits the concupiscence and the muscular acquisitive strength of the male.
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The work “Migration and social mobility” describes social problems faced by minority people in Britain their exclusion from social mobility available for native citizens. The research states that it is obvious that the forces of chance operate in both directions, producing the accidental law-abiding and the accidental lawbreaking individual. The contradiction is sometimes striking, so disturbing that mankind since the oldest times has tried to reconcile the suffering of the “just” and the escape of the wicked, expressed in prosperity and success, with the idea of justice. The author underlines that changing occupational structure and job design help many minority employees to improve their social and economic conditions, it is not the best way to include the minority in social relations. Class transitions and social mobility are weak to support minority employees and allow them to enter society. The individual, whom we fancy as something fixed and immutable even though he is undergoing continual processes of evolution and involution, can never be totally self-centered, unattached, or “individual” as long as he lives in an organized society. He has always some sort of sociological significance; he is an asset, a burden, or a danger, actual or potential. The research proposes a detailed and well-thought analysis of the trends and issues in social mobility and class transitions within ethnic groups. The author establishes a useful fiction when isolates the biological sphere from group relations and the group phenomena from individual attributes. By poisoning a testator and thereby altering succession, the path to a sociological change is opened. There is an intimate interrelation between the biological incident and social implication. Many minority people have been deprived of a chance to receive a well-paid job and give good education for their children excluded from social relations and assess to social benefits available for native citizens.
- Cohen, J.W., HarveyP. J. 2006, Misconceptions of Gender: Sex, Masculinity, and the Measurement of Crime. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 14 (1), 223.
- Platt. WL Migration and social mobility. 2005. Web.