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Intersection of Disability Justice, Race, and Gender

Brown, Robyn Lewis, and Mairead Eastin Moloney. “Intersectionality, Work, and Well-Being: The Effects of Gender and Disability.” Gender & Society, vol. 33, no. 1, 2019, pp. 94-122.

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During the last several decades, the intersectionality of such social concepts as race and gender has been significantly enlarged from the disability justice perspective. This peer-reviewed article focuses on working conditions and differences between male and female employees with and without disabilities. Brown and Moloney develop quantitative analysis and assess the impact of disability and its fairness concerning people’s income, occupational prestige, workplace stress, job autonomy, work conditions, and creativity (97). There are three hypotheses in the study, each of them being fully or partly supported. The authors verify that “gender and disability indirectly affect well-being because of their association with numerous employment-related factors” (Brown and Moloney 111). This article provides a longitudinal analysis of survey data to demonstrate the disadvantages based on disability and gender factors in society. Thus, it is hard to obtain disability justice in the modern workplace because women with disabilities face physiological and psychological challenges and inequalities.

Compared to other sources in the bibliography, this article emphasizes the effects of gender and disability on work and human well-being. Its goal is to reveal the connection between gender differences, working conditions, and well-being by conducting interviews’ statistical analysis. The intersectionality of disability justice validates the female employment experience to be shaped by gender and disability inequalities. This information is reliable for further study as a solid framework with clear structural dimensions.

Regarding my plan to conduct a systematic review of literature about the intersectionality of disability justice, race, and gender, this article fits a considerable part of my study. Although the authors do not consider the role of racial inequality in the workplace, discussing gender issues and the impact of disability is a good contribution to my evaluation. I think that this article can be used in research to support the feminist perspective and use psychological challenges for evidence.

Crip Camp: A Disability Revolution. Directed by Nicole Newnham and James Lebrecht. Netflix, 2020.

This American documentary movie was produced to support the revolution based on human rights and diversities that shape everyday life. It was not just a one-year project but a story that covered years of experience and challenges. In the 1970s, people with disabilities could not protect their rights and had to live with restrictions, being humiliated or neglected from time to time. In this source, the question of disability justice is raised with anger and despair because people with disabilities knew that “the world wanted them dead”, and they had nothing to do but live with this reality (Crip Camp). The decision to found a summer Camp Jened was made to support disabled children and adults and create an environment where equality and trust were promoted. It was not just a place where people shared their interests and health problems but an opportunity to initiate the disability rights movement (Crimp Camp). Each person had their story, experience, and achievement, and this documentary is a collection of their thoughts.

The strength of this source is the possibility not only to read but see how disabled people had to survive in the 1970s. The Americans with Disabilities Act was created in 1990, and before, people did not know how to treat and recognize disability as a social issue. This information is reliable to the current project because it illustrates how men and women of different races forget had to live with disabilities in a society that does not accept them.

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This documentary helps the argument that disability justice can be achieved if people start acting. Even being focused on the disability perspective, other issues like race and gender were mentioned from time to time, proving their intersectionality. I will take some quotes from this source to prove a variety of attitudes toward disability and its impact on human life that differed considerably in the 1970s and the 2020s.

Jampel, Catherine. “Intersections of Disability Justice, Racial Justice and Environmental Justice.” Environmental Sociology, vol. 4, no. 1, 2018, pp. 122-135.

People have to struggle with three types of injustice today: disability, race, and environment. In this article, the intersectional character of this relationship is recognized, using disability as a category for analysis that promotes ableism and other physically related oppressions between races. Many people demonstrate their desire to support disabled individuals, which, unintentionally, encourages the growth of discrimination in favor of abled individuals. Jampel underlines the importance of disability justice as “the framework of the social movement to end ableism in conjunction with ending other systems of oppression” (126). In addition, racial justice shapes human behaviors and affects people’s decisions concerning environmental threats. Jampel offers several cases like Hurricane Katrina or anti-Black racist housing to show how race and disability encourage a vulnerability status in society (131). The main idea of this intersectional approach is to explain the worth of each justice separately and then indicate their impact on each other when being united under specific circumstances.

This article expands the boundaries of research and shows how human disabilities and racial inequality change people in certain environments. The chosen perspective distinguishes this article from other sources and helps strengthen the project because environmental threats make people decide unpredictably. The article’s reliability is proved by the references and a traveling theory the author uses to achieve his goal and explore disability and race in the environmental context.

While much attention is paid to theorizations of environmental justice, this article contains practical explanations of disability and racial justice. I will use the results of this study to facilitate the discussion of the intersectional aspect of disability and race. There are many ways to build a healthy world that lacks unnecessary prejudice and biased decisions. This article shows me how to take the first step in analyzing the environment through the prism of existing disabilities and open racial questions.

Maroto, Michelle, et al. “Hierarchies of Categorical Disadvantage: Economic Insecurity at the Intersection of Disability, Gender, and Race.” Gender & Society, vol. 33, no. 1, 2019, 64-93.

Economic insecurity may be provoked by a number of factors, and this article indicates the intersection of disability, gender, and race as one of the major excuses for this condition. Maroto et al. use feminist disability and several intersectional theories to prove the connection between poverty levels and existing minorities (65). This large cross-sectional survey is based on the evaluation of the main characteristics like gender, race/ethnicity, and disability status and supplementary factors like family structure, education, and income. The authors conclude that high poverty levels and low total income are commonly observed in racial minority women and recognize “the value of public assistance as an important supplement to persons with disabilities” (Maroto et al. 84). Researchers cherish the intention to create a world with equal opportunities and fair support. However, the hierarchies of categorical disadvantage continue to grow, and women, in particular, cannot get out of the circle where education, disabilities, and social prejudice promote economic insecurity.

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In my project, the goal is to analyze the intersection of disability, gender, and race. This article offers an example of how to examine these three factors from an economic perspective. As well as in other sources, these authors prefer to identify a specific context and develop their evaluation using several clear characteristics. This background plays an important role in understanding human behaviors and interpersonal relationships. The presentation of descriptive statistics in tables is a reliable way for the reader to learn how calculations are made in the study.

This article fits into my future research by proving the intersection of the chosen concepts. Disability, race, and gender are social categories that determine economic inequality. I will use this source because it has changed my way of thinking about the role of education in promoting racial or gender biases. My systematic review will benefit from this study to explain the essence of disability justice.

Mendoza, Martin, et al. “Race, Gender, and Disability and the Risk for Juvenile Justice Contact.” The Journal of Special Education, vol. 53, no. 4, 2020, pp. 226-235.

The intersections of disability, race, and gender are characterized by various outcomes, and one of them is the risk for juvenile justice. This peer-reviewed article proves the necessity to control individuals, predict the growth of gender or racial inequality, and contribute to juvenile justice. Although multiple efforts have already been made to promote a safe and equal learning environment, exclusionary school disciplines remain a serious problem in American education (Mendoza et al. 226). The authors use various approaches to identify the nature of the relationship between the chosen social factors, and the school-to-prison pipeline (STPP) metaphor is one of the most remarkable steps. STPP is the framework that “pushes students out of the public schools through suspension or expulsion” and “sacrifices education in favor of criminalizing” (qtd. in Mendoza et al. 227). The concepts of disability, race, and gender are thoroughly discussed, and a cohort longitudinal study is conducted to learn intellectual disabilities, autism, emotional disturbance, and learning difficulties in male and female students of different ethnicities.

This study aims to examine juvenile justice risks based on students’ disabilities, race, and gender. The purpose of my project is to analyze disability justice and its intersectional character and see how minority groups strive for just relationships. The offered academic outlook and properly chosen student and school characteristics help identify when students approach juvenile justice. I will use this information about children’s disabilities as a reliable background for my discussion of perspectives in different social groups.

On the one hand, this study contains the examination of the already known intersectional lenses of race, gender, and disability. On the other hand, there is a new approach to comprehend their connection through the juvenile justice prism in students. Therefore, this article will be added to the list of my resources as it reviews the necessary social categories and factors that contribute to inequalities.

National Disability Institute. “Race, Ethnicity and Disability: The Financial Impact of Systematic Inequality and Intersectionality.” NDI, 2020.

The COVID-19 pandemic has already changed the lives of millions of people around the globe, neglecting most gender, racial, and disability factors. However, some people believe that even the pandemic is not fair to minorities. Therefore, statistics reports and calculations are created to reveal the quantitative difference of facts. The National Disability Institute investigates the financial impact of inequality and “the intersectionality of race, injustice, poverty and disability” (10). Injustices exist in all communities, and this report reveals that compared to 26% of individuals with disabilities live below the poverty line compared to 11% of individuals who do not have disabilities (National Disability Institute 4). The poverty rate of White, Black, and Indigenous representatives also differs, with 8% of Whites, 17% of Blacks, and 20% of Indigenous (National Disability Institute 4). In addition to poverty levels, education, savings, housing costs, employment, and net worth are compared to prove that disability and skin color determine many financial aspects.

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Most of the sources chosen for this project contain qualitative information on the topic. This report aims at sharing statistical data about the intersection between race and disability. No attention is paid to gender differences, but the offered numbers help understand how disabilities affect communities in the United States. The authors identify the vulnerability of populations by reference to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics and other reliable sources.

The decision to use this report in my future project is explained by the necessity to have numbers as evidence for disability justice. Some people need more than observations to prove that race has an impact on poverty the same way a disability affects white people. The figures and graphs of this report will help me shape the study and illustrate changes in a clear and comprehensible way.

Pettinicchio, David. “Why Disabled Americans Remain Second-Class Citizens.” The Washington Post, 2019.

The author of this editorial underlines the necessity to examine disability justice through the civil rights laws’ perspective. It was revealed that if people with disabilities were protected under the Civil Rights Act of 1964, it could compromise the rights of other individuals without disabilities. According to Pettinicchio, there is a “big hole in our civil rights laws.” Therefore, it was correct to exclude disability rights regulations from the already existing laws. In a short period, negative court cases could no longer be ignored, which provoked new activist movements to protect disabled individuals. Pettinicchio concludes that civil rights under the Trump administration disregard disability as well as immigration, race, and other minority issues. Discrimination and segregation remain open for discussions and improvements because many people cannot find enough support in their communities. The promotion of disability rights is supported by many American politicians. Still, there are also those who oppose this status, making disabled Americans second-class citizens.

This article aims at discussing the intention of disabled Americans to obtain clear rights and legal support from their country. It is possible to examine the worth of disability justice using the examples offered by Pettinicchio. Racial and gender inequality was slightly mentioned here, proving the relationship between these three factors of social life. I find the implication of this source a good opportunity to demonstrate how disability divides well-educated and experienced people into two opposing camps.

The goal of this editorial does not exactly meet the goal of my project. Still, I think that its presence in the systematic review will be beneficial because it creates a solid and reliable background for a disability discussion. Researchers find it credible to rely on the law and prove the appropriateness of their evaluations. This article has changed my mind about the legal strength of the disability law.

Schalk, Sami. Bodyminds Reimagined: (Dis)ability, Race, and Gender in Black Women’s Speculative Fiction. Duke University Press, 2018.

There are many ways of how to analyze the connection between gender, race, and disability, and Schalk recommends using speculative fiction. It does not mean that her book is fictional with no real examples being present; on the contrary, the author addresses a real Black feminist theory to argue constantly changing rules (Schalk 3). Bodymind is defined as a “materisalist feminist disability studies concept” about how the mind and body are entangled because of the existing interactions and dependencies (Schalk 5). The main argument of this book is to help people distinguish between what is real and what is fictional and accept the problem of disability as it is but not as it is introduced in different sources. Representations in real life and in fiction are never the same, and it is important to see this line. In addition to bodyminds and fiction, there are three more key terms that are properly explained – (dis)ability, gender, and race. The author gathers evidence and prepares the reader to re-conceptualize disability justice and identity.

This book is one of the most relevant sources to be used for my future project about disability and its intersectional character. It builds a bridge between fictional material that people like to use in their analysis of human disabilities and real theories where race studies, gender relations, and social justice are discussed. This source describes the capacity of black women to generate their visions and raise the questions that matter.

It will be hard to evaluate each aspect of the book and implement Schalk’s all contributions to my study. Thus, I will use this source to define the concepts of gender, race, and disability from a social point of view. Still, it is not enough to create clear definitions but to give examples of why their intersectionality can be possible in terms of my project about disability justice.

Schalk, Sami, and Jina B. Kim. “Integrating Race, Transforming Feminist Disability Studies.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, vol. 46, no. 1, 2020, pp. 31-55.

There are many approaches to understanding how racial and gender differences affect people with physical or mental disabilities or impairments that focus on human health, disease, and wellness. Schalk and Kim offer to implement feminist-of-color disability studies and analyze the existing intersection of disability, race, and feminist theory (50). This study discusses four domains to represent an improved feminist theory: discourse, state violence, healthcare, and activism. Discourse indicates mental and physical abilities and abnormalities that provoke racial and gender inequalities. The indication of state violence in the study is also necessary as it attends to “the direct violence of policing and incarceration” and “the slow violence targeting racialized populations” (Schalk and Kim 45). Healthcare specialists expand on medical aspects and reasons for disabilities, while activism covers appropriate movements to support the intersection of disability, race, and gender. This framework is an example of how to unite several disciplines and rely on past, present, and future experiences.

In comparison to other studies in my reference list, this article is a theoretical framework that can be used for my work to prove the intersectional character of disability in relation to gender and race. Focusing on the US context, this article represents a feminist-of-color study where gender and racial differences are interwound to continue the conversation from the disability perspective. The ties of these three concepts are hard to organize in one model, and this article offers a reliable roadmap.

A systematic review of literature on disability will be improved with this article and the depth of various examples. The strength of this feminist-of-color disability theory is the possibility to combine feminist studies, human disabilities, and racism-based concerns. Its contributions may be observed in various fields, including science, health care, and technology, which expands the boundaries of my research. I will use this article as it helps to explain the intersection between disability, race, and gender from a theoretical point of view.

Sins Invalid. “All Bodies Are Whole.” Disability Arts Online, 2017.

Today, many organizations aim to solve the disability, race, or gender burden that exists, and Sins Invalid is one of such US-based performance projects. In addition to its educative documentaries and books, its developers continue placing online articles with short videos and informative advertisements. To introduce their new book, Sins Invalid created several images, and the image “All Bodies Are Whole” delivers the message about the existing diversity in American society. The authors underline the importance of moving together and staying powerful “not despite the complexities of our bodies, but because of them” (Sins Invalid). In addition to several brief but strong sentences, this advertisement includes a provocative dark background and the photo of a well-known disability activist Leroy Moore. A person can interpret this image in various ways, but the choice of a black man in a dark environment with disability justice being capitalized becomes evidence of what bothers modern society.

An image can hardly be a credible and reliable source of information but rather a subjective vision of the problem shared by one group of people. However, its purpose is to indicate a social issue and evaluate its power employing words, chosen font, layout, and faces. If most of my sources in this project are peer-reviewed with a number of supportive references, this image is an emotional appeal to the topic.

My decision to use this type of source is supported by the necessity to show how people see this societal issue in a specific context. Instead of creating long and time-consuming studies, one image replaces many words. It is essential to manage emotions when people face a problem and try to find a solution. Therefore, disability justice will be visually related to gender and racial conversations.

Works Cited

Brown, Robyn Lewis, and Mairead Eastin Moloney. “Intersectionality, Work, and Well-Being: The Effects of Gender and Disability.” Gender & Society, vol. 33, no. 1, 2019, pp. 94-122.

Crip Camp: A Disability Revolution. Directed by Nicole Newnham and James Lebrecht. Netflix, 2020.

Jampel, Catherine. “Intersections of Disability Justice, Racial Justice and Environmental Justice.” Environmental Sociology, vol. 4, no. 1, 2018, pp. 122-135.

Maroto, Michelle, et al. “Hierarchies of Categorical Disadvantage: Economic Insecurity at the Intersection of Disability, Gender, and Race.” Gender & Society, vol. 33, no. 1, 2019, 64-93.

Mendoza, Martin, et al. “Race, Gender, and Disability and the Risk for Juvenile Justice Contact.” The Journal of Special Education, vol. 53, no. 4, 2020, pp. 226-235.

National Disability Institute. “Race, Ethnicity and Disability: The Financial Impact of Systematic Inequality and Intersectionality.” NDI, 2020.

Pettinicchio, David. “Why Disabled Americans Remain Second-Class Citizens.” The Washington Post, 2019.

Schalk, Sami. Bodyminds Reimagined: (Dis)ability, Race, and Gender in Black Women’s Speculative Fiction. Duke University Press, 2018.

Schalk, Sami, and Jina B. Kim. “Integrating Race, Transforming Feminist Disability Studies.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, vol. 46, no. 1, 2020, pp. 31-55.

Sins Invalid. “All Bodies Are Whole.” Disability Arts Online, 2017.

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