A summary of diffusion of innovations by Robinson Les. The diffusion of innovations is a broad topic that tries to find out how innovations are taken up in a population. Innovation is a behavior, a new idea, or an object that seems to be new to its audience. In other words, diffusion of intonations is a supposition that tries to find out why, how, and at which rate these new concepts are taken up and spread through different cultures.
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Diffusion of innovation presents many important insights into the practice of social change that include the significance of peer networks and peer-to-peer conversations, qualities that make the spread of innovation success, and understanding the requirements of varied user segments (Robinson, 2009)1.
The theory was popularized by a professor of rural socialization named Rogers Everett in his book named Diffusion of Innovations from which he defines diffusion as a method by which innovation is communicated in certain ways over a given period among members of a social system. This paper is going to focus on different models of mass communication, communication networks, and opinion leadership with a keen look at monomorphic and polymorphic opinion leadership.
The hypodermic needle model by Underwood Mick
There exist two models of mass communication flows, which are the hypodermic needle model and the two step flow model. The first model is experienced when a mass media has an immediate or direct effect on its mass audience. In this model, the mass audience wholly receives and accepts the message intended for them (Underwood, 2010)2.
The two-step flow of communication by Ashley Mowbray
On the other hand, the two-step theory asserts that the media effects are indirect and are established through the personal influence of opinion leaders (Mowbray, 2011)3. People are influenced more by face to face contact. Most of the people in this model are not directly influenced by the media, which comes second through the personal influence of opinion leaders.
Diffusion Network by Wirijadinata
There exist homophily and heterophily communication networks. Looking at the hemophilic network, the exchange of concepts mostly occurs between people who are alike and is considered more effective though it is thought to be a barrier to diffusion because of the trickledown effect from the elites in the system to the non elites is nonexistent within the system. Heterophilic in the contrary asserts that the exchange of concepts occurs between different people and is considered ineffective (Wirijadinata, 2011)4.
Opinion leader by the executive fast track
An opinion leader is a person who is able to manipulate and persuade another person’s behavior to conform to his or her preferences. He or she is considered to be influential and has the capability to informally change people’s attitudes and behaviors. Opinion leadership is attained through a leader’s procedural competency, conformity with social system’s norms and values and social skills. It is also sustained through the same (The Executive Fast Track, 2011)5. In this type of opinion leadership, followers of opinion leaders tend to admire and try to look like their leaders. In most cases in the follower’s perception, opinion leaders are more exposed to many activities and relationships.
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Opinion leadership and self monitoring by Asugman et al
Opinion leaders play an important role in the society due to their influential abilities and exposure. They play a big role in spreading of new concepts, beliefs and values (Asugman, 1994)6. There are two types of opinion leadership which are monomorphic and polymorphic. Monomorphic opinion leadership is seen when the leader’s influence is narrowed to one particular subject. This style is thought to be favored in modern industrial societies and is illustrated by roles specialization and labor division. On the hand, polymorphic opinion leadership is seen when a leader’s influence covers a wider range of topics (Rogers 2003, 314)7. It is thought to be conservative and mostly found in traditional societies.
Asugman, Gulden, Borak, Eser and Bodur, Muzaffer. “Opinion leadership and self-monitoring: Evidence for the two-way flow of communications.” Acrwebsite, 1994. Web.
Mowbray, Ashley. “The Two-step flow model of communication.” Blackpool media. 2011. Web.
Robinson, Les. “A summary of diffusion of innovations.” Enabling change. 2009. Web.
Rogers, Everett. Diffusion of innovations. New York. Simon and Schuster, 2003.
The Executive Fast Track. “Opinion Leader.” Manage.com. 2011. Web.
Underwood, Mick. “The hypodermic needle model.” Cultsock. 2010. Web.
Wirijadinata, Jat. “Diffusion Network.” WordPress. 2011. Web.
- Les, Robinson. “A summary of the diffusion of innovations.” 2009. Web.
- Mick, Underwood. “The hypodermic needle model.” 2010. Web.
- Ashley Mowbray. “The Two-step flow model of communication.” 2011. Web.
- Jat, Wirijadinata. “Diffusion Network.” 2011. Web.
- The Executive Fast Track. “Opinion Leader.” 2011. Web.
- Asugman, Gulden, Borak, Eser and Bodur, Muzaffer. “Opinion leadership and self-monitoring: Evidence for the two-way flow of communications.” 1994. Web.
- Everett, Rogers. Diffusion of innovations. New York. Simon and Schuster, 2003.