Norsk Petroleum, a leading gas, and petroleum company pay special attention to motivation and organizational culture, job satisfaction high productivity. The case suggests that some employees feel a lack of motivation and about work trying to find another occupation to develop their skills and improve their life. These problems create real difficulties and threats for the company invested in the training and development of these workers. Motivation and morale are two important components of organizational culture (Bloisi et al 2007). Changes and improvements at Norsk Petroleum will have an impact on these two issues under analysis. Following Reed (2001): “Motivation must be understood not as a series of separate “needs” but as the dynamic aspect of the very functioning of a living organism. In other words, any living organism is, in effect, a pattern of intrinsically active and directed relational functioning” (p. 60). These meanings may be expressed in organization writings, thought, or language management, and social context, an organization sustains its own cultural system of symbols and meanings that can be widely shared by organizational members. the main difference between content’ and ‘process’ theories of motivation. is that the latter determines motivation as a cognitive rational process while the former sees motivational needs satisfaction process. The examples of the process theories are the dams’ Equity theory and McClelland’s theory. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs is an example of the theory of the content. To some extent, motivation processes help govern the interactions among organizational members. The culture will be affected by new principles and norms introduced by Norsk Petroleum. At Norsk Petroleum, where group interests will always be diverse and there will never be agreement, there should be no attempt at a cultural transformation toward motivation.
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The examples of Ola Rennemo, a computer technician, and Elizabeth Pedersen, a petroleum engineer show that lack of motivation and inadequate attention to human resources are the main causes of leaving. both Ola and Elizabeth are well-paid employees in the field but Norsk Petroleum’s competitors are more skillful able to attract these professionals. Ola and Elizabeth are not motivated by the company feeling that they can do more to achieve personal success and develop their careers. In general, effective motivation will help managers and leaders to improve productivity and ensure effective training. Another facet of transmitting messages, which is as equally important to effective communication as is the selection of the medium, is the direction of the medium. An effective communicator will focus on the desired outcomes of the message and then envision possible consequences to the direction of the message (Mullins 2008). For example, to accomplish a particular goal, a trainee might be well-advised to communicate the message upwardly into the organization in order to enlist the support of top management (Schuler, 1998). In other situations, it may be more prudent to communicate the message down to one’s employees in order to obtain the feasibility of accomplishing a particular task before approaching top managements being unprepared for their questions (Robbins 2002). After the medium and direction of the message have been selected, the sender then transmits the message. Upon receipt of the transmission, the receiver will then begin the image reproduction process. The effective communicator will not allow the communication process to terminate here. He or she will elicit feedback in order to ascertain to what extent the original image transmitted is the image that the receiver reproduced (Collins and Porras 2004).
Elizabeth wants to leave the company because she needs more responsibility and power in her work. Using expectancy theory, it is possible to say that for Elizabeth to exert high effort, she must see that it makes a difference in her performance. Elizabeth wants to sense that effort will pay off in terms of performance–that it is extremely correlated with productivity and that higher effort will give way better performance. Elizabeth is an enthusiastic person who wants to work on new projects such as the Newfoundland coast in Canada. “People act only when they have a reasonable expectation that their actions will lead to desired goals” (Collins and Porras 2004). In terms of goal-setting theory, this processing and reprocessing of feedback is an activity that requires some very well-tuned behavior, sensitive skills, and a little more processing time than some managers are willing to give. For Elizabeth, goal statements are a great marketing technique that the politician can use to demonstrate that she is truly up-to-date with the latest management fad. Many highly structured union-management organizations in the United States today are struggling to survive in a very competitive international economic environment. The old hierarchical issue is not sufficiently responsive to rapid change (Robbins 2002).
Equity theory suggests that employees’ feelings depend upon how ethically and morally they have been treated in comparison with other employees. It is possible to say that Elizabeth is treated as a middle manager who lacks responsibility and depends upon supervisors and team members. For Elizabeth, feelings about the equity of the exchange are exaggerated by the treatment they receive when compared with what happens to other people (Robbins, 2002). Tolerance stimulates the unmediated operation of drives or affects, whereas informational environments encourage self-determination. The top-down approach is not working, and the old union-management contracts are no longer efficient. High organizations are more clearly focused on goals to produce positive results. To the extent that organizations can agree on core values such as their purpose, goals, and objectives, political activity can be reduced. The proposed solutions made by Lisa Bohm were too late to change feelings and attitudes Elizabeth. the new proposed job opens new opportunities and benefits to apply her professional knowledge and skills (Collins and Porras 2004).
The case of Ola shows that low motivation and lack of career opportunities are the main causes of the computer technician to leave. He explains that he wants to save time on his way to work and spend more time with his family. Thus, it is only some minor causes of hemorrhaging. From the case, it is evident that Ola feels a lack of motivation and has mo opportunities to develop his career. The proposed tuition fees were a late response to all problems and career expectations of Ola (Campbell, 1887).
In terms of expectancy theory, easier access and better support will motivate employees and inspire them. It is expected that employees will invest in the latest sophisticated technology to improve lateral relations through the use of coordinators, task forces, and matrix designs, together with the use of rules and programs, hierarchy, and goal setting; they have created a range of possibilities that can help to reduce uncertainties generated by the environment. Technology has changed the nature and style of organizations by changing how humans interface with each other. In such circumstances, the organization itself increasingly rests in the information system (Reed 2001). However, if improved information management is the goal, there must be a system to transmit it–the communication system. The central value system about which we have been talking is embedded in the strategic plan. The whole goal-setting process inherent in any strategic plan integrates the principle of the information-based structure. The objectives, which were established in the strategy formulation stage of the strategic management process, are used to measure organizational performance once the strategies have been implemented. Goals and objectives serve as the touchstone for information management in organizations (Crowther and Green 2004).
In terms of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Ola cannot satisfy the need for self-actualization. The motivation problems often manifest themselves in very cohesive teams affording greater productivity. The employee is often referred to as the manager that holds the productive work team together. The tighter the team is held together, the more productive the team should be (Hughes 2006). To improve the cohesiveness of the work team there are many things the effective manager should do. Just like team formation, team conflict, earlier on, was also believed to be of no benefit whatsoever to an organization and was to be prevented at any cost (Robbins 2002).
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Analysis of the Situation and Recommendations
The main problems identified by the case study are the inadequate status of employees and lack of self-realization, no opportunities for advancement, and lack of personal power and responsibilities. Both Elizabeth and Ola have no interest in their job and try to find opportunities for being creative and innovative. Motivational conflict is also inevitable and on some occasions can actually be beneficial to the greater well-being of the organization. While it is still a good course of action to prevent misunderstanding when it does arise the effective manager needs to understand the nature and the causes of the conflict and then choose an appropriate action to deal with it. in order to avoid such situations in the future, the HR manager should pay attention to:
- the personal needs of employees,
- their career hopes,
- interest in the job they perform,
- possible training programs.
Also, it is important to recognize the level of responsibility and advancement opportunities for professional workers (Huczynski and Buchanan 2007).
Personal Motivation Factors
The top five motivation factors are financial rewards, autonomy, excellent working conditions, the opportunity for development, and the opportunity to be creative. In terms of expectancy theory, results with high expectations which are less highly appreciated will reduce attempt expended. For me, intrinsic motivation factors are crucial in my work. To be an effective employee, I must have an idea of where one wants to go and where one wants to be. To recognize the opportunity for development and opportunity to be creative, and effective worker must anticipate the future in order that his or her organization may play a role in that future, rather than being totally subject to it. When envisioning the future, one should attempt to see what new opportunities will be there that will allow their organization to prosper and to grow (Robbins 2002).
Following Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, a person has to satisfy his needs of food and shelter, so financial rewards are important for me. What evolved from the difficulties experienced with these two-dimensional models was an “it depends” clarification for effective leadership. There are times when the situation calls for a lot of concern for the subordinates, for example, in developing methods to implement major change. It is a currently held belief that the key to effective leadership exists not within the leader or in what the leader does per se, but within the situation (Mabey 2003).
The goals setting theory allows me to say that autonomy and excellent working conditions will help me to achieve my goals and be creative. The situation dictates what an effective manager should do. Therefore, the effective leader is an individual who can accurately assess the demands contingent in the situation and act accordingly by creating images of potential actions and results that fit the demands of a critical situation (Robbins 2002). As the human resource professional responsible for the training and development at your organization, it is important that you consider different situations when you design leadership workshops. You should develop many different scenarios that will allow trainees to experience a multitude of varied leadership behaviors. Consider the following scripts which will illustrate two diametrically opposed leadership styles (Huczynski and Buchanan 2007).
The analysis of Norsk Petroleum and my personal motivators allows me to say that motivation is the main driven force of performance and productivity. The main motivational strategies required for effective training program implementation are competency, willingness, collaboration, Motivation is the main factor that helps companies to attract and retain top talents. The task of the HR manager is to envision these threats in advance, so he will be able to avoid them, or at least minimize their negative impact upon well-being. Although managers do not find it a comfortable activity to dwell on unpleasant events, the future survival of our organizations and society, itself, mandates that we try to anticipate worst-case scenarios and develop creative methods to manage them. Motivation programs should be effective and management policies should ensure success and positive outcomes. The main methods used by managers will be the goal-setting method and the leadership. If too much stress is placed on getting the work done, human motivation will suffer. The main strategies applied to the program will be motivation and inspiring employees, cooperation, and support initiatives. If all of the emphasis is placed on workers’ satisfaction, then productivity will suffer. Further, an HR manager can share this expertise with other managers and employees, so that the total organization expands and articulates its images of the future in preparation for that future. The effective manager will reduce the occurrence of these types of unpleasant situations by using strategies and leadership tools to open up the communication channels and airing these differences.
Bloisi W, Cook CW & Hunsaker PL 2007, Management and Organizational Behaviour, 2nd ed. Maidenhead: McGraw Hill
Campbell, D.J. 1887, Organizations and the Business Environment. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Collins, J., Porras, J. I. 2004, Built to Last: Successful Habits of Visionary Companies. Collins.
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Huczynski A & Buchanan D 2007, Organizational Behaviour, 6th ed. Harlow: Prentice Hall
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Reed A. 2001, Innovation in Human Resource Management. Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.