Nephrotic Syndrome refers to the condition of collective symptoms caused by kidney damage such as the presence of proteins in the urine, reduced albumin levels in the blood, increased lipids, and noticeable swelling. The condition occurs as the patient loses 3 grams of proteins in a day through the urine in a single spot (NIH, 2020). Other signs such as weight gain, tiredness, and foamy urine may be experienced as well. Complications like blood clots, high BP, and infections may start presenting in the body. Nephrotic syndrome starts to display when bunches of blood vessels in the kidney are damaged to filter the unnecessary water from the blood.
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The disease is diagnosed by conducting several examinations and procedures such as urinalysis to reveal any abnormalities, in particular, the presence of proteins in the urine; to this end, the patient is asked to provide samples. Blood tests are done to identify levels of albumin and the overall level of proteins, while the loss of the later is related to an increased level of blood cholesterol and triglycerides.
The amount of creatinine and urea nitrogen in the blood is also measured to evaluate the overall function of the kidney (NIH, 2020). A kidney biopsy might be recommended to remove a small sample of the kidney tissue to be tested. The treatment of nephrotic syndrome depends on its causes, as the first condition which is suspected is given priority. The primary objective is to lower the blood pressure using ACE inhibitors and ARBs and the cholesterol level. Diuretics and salts should be given to reduce swelling and administration of vaccines to prevent common infections.
Patients with the disease require a nursing care plan such as edema relief, enhancing the nutritive state of the body, conservation of energy, and provision of information necessary to manage the condition. Nurses should monitor that clients follow the medication and nutritional therapy and actions to take in case of relapse (NIH, 2020). Furthermore, they should keep records of all the changes in the patient’s progress and improvement and ensure that the best medication for the clients is administered.
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIH), (2020). Nephrotic Syndrome in adults. Web.