Non-Pharmacological Pain Management Definition

Clinical Nursing Practice Problem

Non-pharmacological interventions are beneficial in reducing labor pain, with minimal or no damage to mother and fetus, as well as the overall progress of labor. Such methods are simple and cost-effective, however, their application is not yet fully examined in clinical settings, specifically in sub-Saharan Africa. The use of pharmacological interventions for the control of labor pain plays a fundamental role in the maternity care profession due to the efficiency of this method in reducing pain in expectant mothers.

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They have the ability to reduce analgesic consumption during labor and consist of the following measures, such as “massage, breathing techniques, positioning, hydrotherapy, music, guided imagery, acupressure, and aromatherapy” (Boateng et al., 2019, p. 2). As such, it is vital for nurses and midwives to analyze the studies on experiences with using non-pharmacological interventions in labor pain management since they serve the predominant role in the childbirth process.

Clinical Nursing PICOT Question

Labor pain is considered one of the most painful experiences in a women’s life. It mainly varies according to different stages of labor, together with the fear of the birth process, anxiety, sense of control loss, and stress that affect women during childbirth.

Do the non-pharmacological practices (I) have a positive labor outcome and satisfy the physiological needs of women (P) by reducing the level of pain (O) between study groups (C) during labor throughout 4 months (T)?

Define PICOT Elements

  • P- (patient population/patients of interest): (60) women (30) control and (30) study group who admitted to Al-Elwyia Maternity Teaching Hospital suffering from labor pain
  • I- (Intervention): evaluation of the effect of non-pharmacological practices
  • C- (Comparison): descriptive and inferential statistical analyses
  • O- (Measurable outcome): reducing the level of pain in different stages of labor
  • T- (Time frame in months): 4th July 2018 through 24th October 2018 – 4 months

Evidence Retrieval Process and Summary

The following evidence-based study aimed at confirming a positive labor outcome and meeting the physiological needs of women is by efficient labor pain management. The non-pharmacological methods of pain relief implemented in a quasi-experimental study include “frankincense, jasmine, and olive oils, massage, body movement and change position, breathing technique, and therapeutic touch” (Fadhil, & Ali, 2019, p. 680).

It is valuable research as it evaluated the intensity of pain level in accordance with the non-pharmacological methods applied, as well as the nurse’s and midwives’ experiences with using these interventions for labor pain management. Amongst the core reasons to implement the non-pharmacologic techniques in nursing, the clinical practice includes their non-invasiveness, inexpensive nature, simplicity of use, safety, and comfort. The maternity care providers and patients should be highly informed about the variety of labor pain relief options, with a focus on non-pharmacologic methods and their beneficial outcomes.

Implications of the Evidence

The outcomes of the non-pharmacological methods implementation include the highest rate and beneficial results for the frankincense oil method, jasmine oil, as well as squatting position, and side-lying position and breathing. Furthermore, massage and standing position, therapeutic touch and standing, olive oil, breathing technique, and therapeutic touch and distraction’ also demonstrated good results. The beneficial role of the oils is based upon their ability to general relaxation, reduced anxiety, and contribution to the reduced labor pain. In addition, massage is perceived as one of the best non-pharmacological therapies that are helpful in labor since it may decrease the intensity of labor pain. Future studies should be primarily focused on the examination of some of the mentioned non-pharmacologic methods on labor pain relief and other birth results, specifically in countries with limited resources.

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Boateng, E., Kumi, L., & Diji, A. (2019). Nurses and midwives’ experiences of using non-pharmacological interventions for labour pain management: a qualitative study in Gha-na. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 19(1), 1-10. Web.

Fadhil, S., & Ali, R. (2019). Effect of non-pharmacological pain management methods on re-duction the severity of labor pain in Primigravida women at AL-Elwyia maternity teach-ing hospital. Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, 10(7), 680-685. Web.

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