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Analysis of Orem’s Nursing Theory Under Concept

Concept analysis remains a powerful strategy for ensuring that readers and users of a specified theory understand and apply it accordingly. This practice is usually designed to ensure that researchers and students have a clear understanding of the intended variable. This approach conveys the desired meaning and eventually supports the formulation of the best propositions and assumptions. The selected concept for this discussion is that of self-care.

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The best nursing theory that addresses it is Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory (SCDNT). The paper begins by giving an explanation of the selected concept. The second part presents a detailed literature review on the concept of self-care. It goes further to describe various attributes associated with it. The third section gives an antecedent and consequent of the selected concept. This will be followed by two empirical references of self-care. Several cases detailing the use of this concept will be presented. The final part offers a detailed theoretical application of the identified concept.

Definition and Explanation

The concept of self-care remains critical in the field of healthcare. Mills, Wand, and Fraser (2018) define “self-care” as a holistic and proactive approach to promoting one’s wellbeing through various initiatives, such as maintaining cleanliness and taking good care of surgical sites. This practice is applicable to both patients and caregivers. Stakeholders can pursue the concept to identify existing barriers and promote enablers that will maximize personal care practices. In Orem’s SCDNT model, self-care is defined as the performance of various procedures and activities that people can undertake or initiatives on their behalf to maintain wellbeing, health, and life (Mills et al., 2018).

Individuals can, therefore, focus on this concept to address various barriers to positive health outcomes and engage in evidence-based strategies (Hasanpour-Dehkordi, 2016). Those with chronic conditions can consider this conception to achieve their medical aims.

Literature Review

Within the past three decades, the concept of self-care has become critical or applicable in different health settings. Although the idea revolves around patients’ ability to engage in health improving practices, the roles of medical professionals still remain relevant. For instance, Rutter (2015) indicates that many people usually purchase over-the-counter drugs from pharmacies. This means that practitioners in such facilities should identify enablers to self-care practices and empower individuals to record desirable results. Different stakeholders in the healthcare delivery chain should be willing to pay attention to specific factors that tend to discourage self-care practices.

Kristensen, Hølge-Hazelton, Waldorff, and Guassora (2017) go further to indicate that many general practitioners (GPs) lack adequate competencies to promote the idea of self-care in persons with various chronic conditions

Due to the complex demands of different patients, caregivers, family members, and religious can be involved to make self-care a reality. Socioeconomic issues also make it impossible for patients to take good care of their bodies (Gobeil-Lavoie, Chouinard, Danish, & Hudon, 2018). Medical professionals should introduce superior measures that can fulfil patients’ demands. The concept of self-care is capable of delivering positive results when health practitioners collaborate with the targeted beneficiaries (Kuehl, Abdulnour, O’Dell, & Kyle, 2015). Patients will receive additional instructions for managing their conditions even after being discharged from their hospitals.

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Some studies have presented evidence-based strategies for introducing self-care practices to patients in different clinical settings. For instance, Abreu, Barroso, Segadães, and Teixeira (2015) indicate that nurses and supervisors should introduce self-care as a practice that individuals can carry out with reduced support. The ultimate objective is to ensure that they preserve their self-esteem, health, and life. Hospitals usually consider this argument to ensure that more people are capable of promoting the highest level of hygiene, engaging in continuous learning, and reducing the level of dependence (Riegel, Jaarsma, Lee, & Strömberg, 2019).

With the use of modern technologies, individuals can acquire advanced ideas for engaging in self-care practices. Gobeil-Lavoie et al. (2018) revealed that there was a need for medical professionals to embrace the same concept to continue providing high-quality services to their patients. Such measures will make it easier for them to reduce chances of infections and fatigue, address emerging barriers, and eventually transform the face of the healthcare sector.

Defining Attributes

Medical practitioners focus on the best practices to maximize patients’ outcomes. A proper understanding of the attributes associated with self-care can ensure that the intended objectives are realized. The first one is that of self-reliance and it encourage people to focus on ethics. Family members and relatives can be involved to ensure that their patients record positive outcomes (Hasanpour-Dehkordi, 2016). The second characteristic is that of education.

Hasanpour-Dehkordi (2016) supports the power of training procedures and resources that make it possible for different individuals to engage in self-care practices. This form of education will ensure that the targeted beneficiaries embrace such procedures and eventually record improved quality of life. The third attribute referenced in different researches is that of interaction. Since human beings cannot live without the support of their colleagues and relatives, it is appropriate for friends, nurses, and family members to be involved in order to ensure that self-care objectives are realized.

Antecedent and Consequence

The adoption of self-care in medical practice is usually informed by client, system, or situation-based antecedents. A good example is the involvement of health professionals in medical facilities. Hasanpour-Dehkordi (2016) indicates that practitioners can engage in evidence-based practices and educate patients about this concept. The potential outcome is that the identified individual will engage in self-care procedures. When such practices become a reality, the outstanding consequence is that the patient will achieve his or her health objectives. This is possible since self-care improves healing and delivers desirable medical results.

Empirical Referents

The adoption of a specific concept in nursing is something that can be measured or determined. This analytical technique is known as empirical reference. The first one for self-care is the degree of responsibility in the targeted patients. It can be high or low depending on the willingness and desire of individuals to complete various self-care practices (Kuehl et al., 2015). The second one is the level of independence in making desirable decisions and promoting the best behaviors. This means that people can engage in such procedures freely or be demanded by other professionals. These empirical referents can guide nurses and caregivers can measure the presence of self-care objectively.

Construct Cases

The selected situation occurred when my advanced practice nursing team was required to provide high-quality care to a patient with arthritis. While in the ward, the group embraced the power of education to sensitize him about the best self-care practices. The members also interacted with him continuously until positive results were realized. He was taught how to take care of his body, engage in light exercises, eat healthy, and engage others after being discharged.

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The end result was that the individual became self-reliant after going home, collaborated with family members, took medications, and eventually recorded positive health results (Rutter, 2015). These aspects show conclusively that this example is a model case.

The second scenario occurred when a nurse was providing medical support to a patient with diabetes. While in the hospital, the individual received timely instructions for engaging in self-care practices. This means that the attribute of education was evident in the situation. He also interacted with both clinicians and caregivers throughout the care delivery period. However, the patient was reluctant to engage in the outlined self-care practices after being discharged. This malpractice affected his medical outcomes. This is a good example of a border case.

The final scenario occurred when a team of health workers were required to offer evidence-based services to a HIV/AIDS patient. The individual was uninterested in the presented ideas and concepts. He slept most of the time and avoided any meaningful conversation with the clinicians. He complained about his situation and even failed to interact with others. Although he was taking the required medicine, it was hard to sensitize him about the most appropriate self-care practices (Mills et al., 2018). After being discharged, the patient’s health deteriorated since he did not accept any form of support from immediate family members. Consequently, his overall wellbeing and life deteriorated. This example is a clear description of a contrary case.

Theoretical Applications of the Concept

The analysis of a concept is something essential since it makes it possible for users to understand it, identify the best approaches to measure it objectively, and follow specific attributes that can make it applicable in different settings. The description can deliver a superior model for pursuing a specific model and ensuring that the intended health experiences are recorded (Riegel et al., 2019). Since different theories tend to have several concepts, it is always necessary for scholars to analyze them and understand how they can adopt them to improve nursing practice. Additionally, concept analysis is a critical procedure for developing a specific nursing theory.

The effectiveness and applicability of Orem’s SCDT model depends on the self-care concept. The theory identifies nursing as a process of empowering others by presenting self-care opportunities and improving the level of human functioning (Kristensen et al., 2017).

The theory presents evidence-based approaches for ensuring that people or patients are able to take good care of their bodies and eventually maintain their wellbeing. This concept, therefore, expands the four metaparadigms of nursing by introducing a new idea whereby practitioners can consider evidence-based approaches for empowering patients to perform specific activities that will eventually maintain health and life. The above attributes can also be introduced to educate and ensure that more patients are willing to engage in self-care practices.


The above discussion has identified self-care as a unique concept that can be considered to transform nursing practice. It focuses on the best that can empower more people to record positive health outcomes. Orem’s SCDNT model is founded on this concept and it presents evidence-based ideas for ensuring that more patients perform self-care initiatives. Those in the field of advanced practice nursing can consider this concept to empower their patients and ensure that they appreciate the importance of engaging in practices that will promote their wellbeing and health. Such professionals will also present training opportunities to individuals and encourage their relatives or friends to remain supportive.

They should focus on recording positive results whereby patients engage in self-care voluntarily and pursue the intended health goals. The completed analysis has equipped me with numerous ideas for engaging in personal self-care practices and empowering my patients to do so. I will go further to conduct more studies to acquire additional ideas and eventually improve my philosophy of nursing.

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Abreu, W., Barroso, C., Segadães, M. F., & Teixeira, S. (2015). Promotion of self-care in clinical practice: Implications for clinical supervision in nursing. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 5(1), 6-9. Web.

Gobeil-Lavoie, P., Chouinard, M., Danish, A., & Hudon, C. (2018). Characteristics of self-management among patients with complex health needs: A thematic analysis review. BMJ Global Health, 9(5), e028344. Web.

Hasanpour-Dehkordi, A. (2016). Self-care concept analysis in cancer patients: An evolutionary analysis. Indian Journal of Palliative Care, 22(4), 388-394. Web.

Kristensen, M. A. T., Hølge-Hazelton, B., Waldorff, F. B., & Guassora, A. D. (2017). How general practitioners perceive and assess self-care in patients with multiple chronic conditions: A qualitative study. BMC Family Care, 18(1), 109-118. Web.

Kuehl, B. L., Abdulnour, S., O’Dell, M., & Kyle, T. K. (2015). Understanding the role of the healthcare professional in patient self-management of allergic rhinitis. SAGE Open Medicine, 3, 2050312115595822. Web.

Mills, J., Wand, T., & Fraser, J. A. (2018). Exploring the meaning and practice of self-care among palliative care nurses and doctors: A qualitative study. BMC Palliative Care, 17(1), 63-74. Web.

Riegel, B., Jaarsma, T., Lee, C. S., & Strömberg, A. (2019). Integrating symptoms into the middle-range theory of self-care of chronic illness. Advances in Nursing Science, 42(3), 206-215. Web.

Rutter, P. (2015). Role of community pharmacists in patients’ self-care and self-medication. Integrated Pharmacy Research and Practice, 4, 57-65. Web.

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