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Obesity, Diet Modification and Physical Exercises

The Connection of PICOT Question, Research Articles, and Nursing Practice Problem

Lifestyle interventions are among the components of overweight or obesity therapy. Adult populations can find these interventions complicated or unnecessary because adults accept changes less eagerly. Nevertheless, changes in diet and activity are possible interventions to deal with overweight and obesity. This research is aimed at discovering the effect these interventions will have on a person. The impact of a diet together with exercises is compared to only following a diet. The PICOT question for this research is as follows.

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  • P: In patients age range are between 40 to 60 years old suffering from obesity,
  • I: does diet modification and physical exercise plans,
  • C: compares with only diet management,
  • O: reduce patient weight and improve healthy lifestyles,
  • T: in a year?

The issues similar to the PICOT question has been the topic for other researches. Thus, Foster-Schubert et al. (2012) investigated the effect of diet and exercise, separately and in combination, on weight and body composition. However, weight loss is only one of the stages. The following one is weight maintenance. Swift, Johannsen, Lavie, Earnest, & Church (2014) discovered the role of physical activity and exercises in the process of weight loss and maintenance. The nursing practice problem is closely connected with the PICOT questions and is supported by recent research. It includes the determination of the effectiveness of diverse lifestyle interventions such as diet and physical activity. These interventions can be used separately or in combination. Thus, the nursing practice problem in this research deals with the choice of the most efficient health intervention aimed at solving the question of obesity.

Information for Evidence-Based Changes

The implementation of changes into practice can be more efficient in case it is based on the evidence of earlier studies. Thus, for this research, the following evidence can be useful. First of all, the review by Swift et al. (2014) investigated the significance of physical activity and exercise training for the prevention of obesity, weight loss, weight maintenance, and obesity itself. One of the questions observed by the authors is the comparison of a diet and exercise as a means of weight loss. The experiment showed that both groups had almost equal weight loss. However, the group with exercises lost more fat mass if compared to the group on a diet (Swift et al., 2014). On the whole, the researchers concluded that the combination of exercise with caloric restriction has a more evident and continuous effect on weight loss if compared to any single method.

Foster-Schubert et al. (2012) conducted a one-year-long lifestyle intervention. It was based on groups and discovered the outcomes of the combined influence with the use of diet and exercise and another one without any sports activity. After the researchers obtained data, statistical analysis was conducted. The results revealed excellent adherence to losing weight with the help of a diet and regular exercise. Participants in the only diet group lost a mean of 7.2 kg, participants in the exercise group lost a mean 2.0 kg, while whereas those in the diet and exercise group lost a mean of 8.9 kg. Moreover, attendance frequency was also meaningful. For example, participants who attended all sessions including additional ones lost the most weight (Foster-Schubert et al., 2012). Summarizing the findings, it can be concluded that a year-long program aimed at the change of the lifestyle was efficient. Both dietary and exercise interventions give the necessary effect, however, the combination of methods is the most productive.


Foster-Schubert, K.E., Alfano, C.M., Duggan, C.R., Xiao, L., Campbell, K.L., Kong, A. … McTierman, A. (2012). Effect of diet and exercise, alone or combined, on weight and body composition in overweight-to-obese postmenopausal women. Obesity, 20(8), 1628-1638. Web.

Swift, D.L., Johannsen, N.M., Lavie, C.J., Earnest, C.P., & Church, T.S. (2014). The role of exwercise and physical activity in weight loss and maintenance. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 56(4), p. 441-447. Web.

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