The quantitative article selected is titled “Case Management of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Chongqing, China.” The main finding of the study is that case management for Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is not effectively implemented in terms of regularity of follow-up visits and suggested tests over a one-year period (HbA1c test, blood lipid test and screening for nephropathy and eyes annually), as designated in the regional practice guideline.
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Problem Statement and Purpose
The research problem is clearly stated in the introduction to the study with the view to broadly indicating to the reader what the authors of the research article purpose to study. In purpose, it is evident that this article attempts to examine the regularity of follow-up visits and the specific contents of care for case management of Chinese patients with T2DM in the selected region of Chongqing, particularly in terms of regional practice guideline and factors linked to the use of care (He et al., 2017). As demonstrated in the literature, a good statement of the research problem, purpose, and background information ensures the formation of a strong link between what the researchers want to achieve and how the study will be undertaken (Coughlan, Cronin, & Ryan, 2007). He et al. (2017) do not state the expected results for the study.
Review of the Literature
He et al. (2017) use recent sources that are pertinent to the study to not only develop the topic but also to identify the paucity of research studies examining case management for T2DM patients. The authors’ use of literature sources can be termed as concise and authoritative, though the review can be accused of being a bit too narrow in scope since there a lot of good sources on the main issue of interest. Overall, the review passes the benchmarks stated by Fothergill and Lipp (2014) for the logical organization, provision of a balanced critical analysis of the literature, relevancy, and currency.
Methods, Study Sample, Strategies for Manipulation of Variables, and Reliability
The study’s quantitative approach and cross-sectional design are consistent with the stated study purpose as they enabled the researchers to collect objective data from a subset of the Chinese population with T2DM at a specific point in time (Wakefield, 2014). The semi-structured questionnaires used to collect data are also appropriate based on their cost-effectiveness and ease of administration (Wakefield, 2014).
The authors are comprehensive in detailing how participants in the study were recruited, including the inclusion criterion, the exclusion criterion, the sampling technique used (convenience), and the total number of participants recruited for the study (664; 502 completed the questionnaires). The methodologies used to recruit the participants are ethical since the respondents were fully informed about the nature of the study (Ingham-Broomfield, 2014), and their autonomy and confidentiality were guaranteed (Wakefield, 2014).
There is no evidence demonstrating how He et al. (2017) used strategies for manipulation of the independent variable. Additionally, this particular study does not present any opportunities for harming participants since the interventions do not entail the administration of drugs or other therapies (Wakefield, 2014). The independent variable is T2DM, while the main dependent variable is the implementation of the regional guideline on T2DM.
Statistical Procedures, Test Value, Reliability, and Validity
The statistical procedures used for this study (descriptive and inferential statistics) are appropriate for providing responses to the main research objective and also for enabling the analysis of the quantitative data collected from the field using semi-structured survey instruments. The authors make no mention of the test value that was used to conduct the statistical analysis, possibly because the study was not interested in the testing of hypotheses (Wakefield, 2014). However, the level of significance used to undertake inferential statistics and establish relationships among variables is 0.05 (He et al., 2017). A major weakness of the article is that it does not address issues of reliability and validity of constructs and measurement instruments.
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Data Analysis and Presentation, Other Research Findings, and Limitations
As already mentioned, quantitative data for this study are analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The data support the initial purpose of the study, meaning that the quantitative approach and cross-sectional design used to collect the data are appropriate (Fothergill & Lipp, 2014). It is important to note that the presentation of findings is done using text and easily understandable tables.
In the discussion section of the study, one can note that the findings of the critiqued article have been replicated in other previous studies. The limitations that have been identified include (1) failure to identify disease status of respondents due to inaccessible medical records, and (2) geographical limitation of sample size.
Implications for Practice and Use of Article
The study by He et al. (2017) provides evidence suggesting that “actions for improving health system performance can be taken to better manage DM patients in China.” (p. 7). This implication is logical and is supported by data demonstrating the inadequacies of case management for patients with T2DM within the Chinese context. The conclusion provided by the authors is related to the original purpose of the study.
Lastly, this article is applicable to my practice and therefore, can be used to improve care for patients with T2DM. Specifically, the knowledge gained from the article could be applied in practice settings to identify the anomalies related to T2DM case management, particularly within the realms of HbA1c test, blood lipid test, and screening for nephropathy and eyes. Once these anomalies are identified and addressed, it would be easier to reduce the mortality, morbidity, and healthcare-related costs associated with the disease (Chang et al., 2007).
Chang, H.C., Chang, Y.C., Lee, S.M., Chen, M.F., Huang, M.C., Peng, C.L., & Yan, C.Y. (2007). The effectiveness of hospital-based diabetes case management: An example from a Northern Taiwan regional hospital. Journal of Nursing Research, 15(4), 296-309. Web.
Coughlan, M., Cronin, P., & Ryan, F. (2007). Step-by-step guide to critiquing research. Part 1: Quantitative research. British Journal of Nursing, 16(11), 658-663. Web.
Fothergill, A., & Lipp, A. (2014). A guide to critiquing a research paper on clinical supervision: Enhancing skills for practice. Journal of Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing, 21(9), 834-840. Web.
He, M., Gao, J., Liu, W., Tang, X., Tang, S., & Long, Q. (2017). Case management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional survey in Chongqing, China. BMC Health Services Research, 17(1), 1-8. Web.
Ingham-Broomfield, R. (2014). A nurses’ guide to the critical reading of research. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 32(1), 37-44. Web.
Wakefield, A. (2014). Searching and critiquing the research literature. Nursing Standard, 28(39), 49-57. Web.