In order to determine the success of the intervention identified in the PICOT question, it is necessary to establish reliable evaluation procedures. These procedures will ensure that the data relevant to the project is collected and processed, and the results of the analysis are delivered to respective stakeholders. In addition, the evaluation results can be used for reporting of the results to the administration and as a proof of the project’s applicability in a similar setting.
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In the context of the project, the clinical question is as follows:
In patients that are identified as high risk for developing a pressure ulcer (P), does the implementation of a pressure ulcer protocol initiated in the emergency department (I) as compared to patients who receive usual care (C), reduce the incidence of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (O) on day 3 of hospitalization (T)?
As can be seen, the main metric to be used in the evaluation process is the incidence of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers. Thus, the evaluation will involve counting the number of patients with pressure ulcers in the department. In accordance with the definition of incidence, only the pressure ulcers developed after the admission to the unit should be included in the dataset. It is important to understand that the condition in question is known to produce areas of damaged skin. Thus, lesions and other instances of tissue damage unrelated to sores are to be excluded from the procedure.
The time frame identified in the PICOT question is three days after the hospitalization. It is important to understand that this time is based on the estimation of the combination of risk factors responsible for the development of the condition and does not represent the oval duration of the project. The timing formation of a pressure ulcer depends on a number of factors, including individual physiological characteristics of the patients, their skin condition, and environmental conditions within the unit (Coleman et al., 2013). Thus, the evaluation will be conducted based on two sets of data, collected immediately after the admission and following a three-day period.
The project involves two main categories of stakeholders. The first category includes the patients admitted to the unit, whose health condition is being assessed. The second category includes nurses who deliver care and participate in the project by collecting and analyzing data (Qaseem, Humphrey, Forciea, Starkey, & Denberg, 2015). In addition, a number of stakeholders can be identified whose involvement in the project is indirect. These include unit administration, nursing educators, and nursing managers, whose decisions and actions determine the quality of care and, by extension, patient outcomes.
The basic assumption behind the proposed project is the relationship between the use of a systematized set of guiding principles, such as ulcer protocols, and health outcomes of patients (Coleman et al., 2014). The assumptions identified in the PICOT question are based on the evidence from available literature and are designed in accordance with the current academic consensus. The project is expected to provide evidence of the chosen method’s viability, which suggests a predictive theoretical framework to be used.
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In accordance with the use of the predictive theoretical framework, the chosen design is the experimental study. The independent variable is the use of a pressure ulcer protocol, and the dependent variable used in the project is the incidence of pressure ulcers. As can be seen, the variables are measurable and quantifiable, which suggests quantitative analysis as the most appropriate option for the study.
The data obtained from the participants will be depersonalized to ensure confidentiality. The dataset and results of the analysis will be encrypted during storage and transportation. The patients will be informed of the possible risks of participating in the project.
The setting of the project is the emergency department of the facility. The sample is patients admitted to it throughout the duration of the project. The theoretical aspect of the study will be completed via a literature review. The relevant sources will be located and systematized in the form of an evidence table to substantiate the assumptions. Data will be collected throughout the course of the project, with two datapoints for each patient. After this, the data will be converted into a format compatible with software capable of statistical analysis and processed. The results will be summarized in written and graphical form for additional clarity and accessibility.
The data will be collected and recorded using a unit log and converted to digital format using LibreOffice Calc. The analysis will be performed using PSPP. Both software tools are available for free and offer the functions necessary and sufficient for obtaining the necessary information.
From the quantitative viewpoint, the incidence of ulcers can be calculated by dividing the number of instances with observable signs of pressure ulcers by the total number of patients admitted to the department during the project’s duration. The procedure is to be performed on both the intervention and the control groups. The results of both groups can then be compared to identify the clinical significance of the implementation of a pressure ulcer protocol.
After the results of the analysis are obtained, they are to be disseminated to key stakeholders using two distinct approaches. The facility management is to receive the information in the form of a written report. The staff should be informed through a series of meetings that illustrate key findings and justify the changes in facility procedures to ensure effective organization-wide implementation.
Coleman, S., Gorecki, C., Nelson, E. A., Closs, S. J., Defloor, T., Halfens, R.,… Nixon, J. (2013). Patient risk factors for pressure ulcer development: Systematic review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 50(7), 974-1003.
Coleman, S., Nixon, J., Keen, J., Wilson, L., McGinnis, E., Dealey, C.,… Cuddigan, J. (2014). A new pressure ulcer conceptual framework. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 70(10), 2222-2234.
Qaseem, A., Humphrey, L. L., Forciea, M. A., Starkey, M., & Denberg, T. D. (2015). Treatment of pressure ulcers: A clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Annals of Internal Medicine, 162(5), 370-379.