Psychology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

One of the developmental disorders often diagnosed in the middle childhood years is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children suffering from this condition experience three basic difficulties: hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsive behavior (Harris & Westermann, 2014, p. 189). This disorder interferes with the child’s development on a cognitive level of functioning.

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A child may experience an inability to concentrate, including school and recreational activities, an inability to remain in one place, an urge to interrupt others or to answer a question before it is completed, etc. ADHD may impair the child’s cognitive abilities, social functioning, and maybe the cause of poor results in a school setting. From a physiological standpoint, a low level of dopamine was found to increase the possibility of ADHD development (Harris & Westermann, 2014, p. 189).

Certain studies show that hyperactivity disorder can have long-term implications. In certain cases, the effects of childhood ADHD may be minimized through various lifestyle choices in adulthood. However, many cases were documented, where adults with a childhood ADHD diagnosis displayed substantially worse results in the following areas: educational achievements, professional activities, social activities, a higher number of divorces, psychiatric treatments, imprisonment, and development of new mental disorders (Klein et al., 2012, p. 1296). Moreover, statistics have shown that adults with a childhood ADHD diagnosis were more likely to develop Antisocial Personality Disorder and substance abuse problems (Klein et al., 2012, p. 1298).

Having a friend, who was diagnosed with ADHD at the age of eight, I can state with certainty that this condition implies certain long-term effects. The severity of implications might vary depending on the case, but my friend’s example shows how the disorder disrupts the development of a child, and maybe cause difficulties in adult spheres of activity, including completing higher education, professional occupation, and personal life.


Harris, M., & Westermann, G. (2014). A student’s guide to developmental psychology. New York, NY: Psychology Press.

Klein, R. G., Mannuzza, S., Olazagasti, M. A. R., Roizen, E., Hutchison, J. A., Lashua, E. C., & Castellanos, F. X. (2012). Clinical and functional outcome of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 33 years later. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69(12), 1295-1303.

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