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Readmission Rates Study’s Variables and Instrument

Extraneous Variables

Considering that the proposed study is aimed at defining the factors that may influence readmission rates of patients with congestive heart failure, the extraneous variables to be used in the study can be presented by the consumption of fats and sugar by the participants of experiments. To exclude the influence of these variables on the results (to control them), it can be necessary to divide the participants into two groups based on the consumption of fats and sugars. One part of the group with an unhealthy diet will have to change their eating behavior and health screening results for these groups will be compared to define the role of these specific factors.

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The Instrument

The instrument to be utilized is the use of blood pressure monitors and ECG machines. To control the validity and reliability of the tests conducted within the frame of the study, it is necessary to pay focused attention to external factors that may affect the results. To estimate the reliability of tests, researchers are supposed to check whether the retrieved results can be reproduced on another day. More than that, there is no doubt that practices applied by different specialists conducting the tests can influence the reliability of tests as well. Therefore, to exclude the impact of this factor on the reliability of the results, the particular specialist conducting the test should be defined randomly (it is possible to use random number generators, etc.) (Bohlen et al., 2014). Also, it was decided to check the working condition of the primary equipment used to assess the health condition of participants (blood pressure monitors, and ECG machines). Diagnostic accuracy of the equipment was measured and the latter can provide reliable results. In terms of validity, the validity of the tests can be ensured with the help of the calibration of the equipment.

The Intervention

The healthcare intervention helping to answer the research question will include three important steps. To begin with, all participants represented by people suffering from chronic heart failure will have to present the following data for further analysis: the number of previous hospital admissions and the stage of the disease. Based on the information from food diaries, two groups including people with more healthy and less healthy lifestyles will be formed. Operations of the heart of each participant will be analyzed and randomly chosen people from the second group will have to keep to the diet including reduced consumption of sugar and saturated fats (with allowance for BMI of patients and their calorific requirements) (Li et al., 2015). After that, the health measurements in different groups will be taken every week to track possible changes.

Data Collection Procedures

For primary data collection, questionnaires concerning the clinical course and food diaries kept by the participants will be used. To find out whether dietary habits influence readmission rates and the general condition of the heart, it will be necessary to analyze the food diaries of the participants. Ten days before the start of the experiment, the participants will be asked to keep food diaries, including any products that have been eaten and their exact quantities. The data will be analyzed and increased attention will be paid to the average consumption of fats and sugar.

In terms of the secondary data represented by health information, it will be collected with the help of ECG monitoring and blood pressure monitoring. The results retrieved before and after the dietary intervention will be compared to define whether a healthy diet improves the heart operation of people with CHF and, therefore, reduces the threat of readmissions.


Bohlen, M., Hayes, E. R., Bohlen, B., Bailoo, J. D., Crabbe, J. C., & Wahlsten, D. (2014). Experimenter effects on behavioral test scores of eight inbred mouse strains under the influence of ethanol. Behavioural Brain Research, 272, 46-54.

Li, Y., Hruby, A., Bernstein, A. M., Ley, S. H., Wang, D. D., Chiuve, S. E.,… Hu, F. B. (2015). Saturated fats compared with unsaturated fats and sources of carbohydrates in relation to risk of coronary heart disease: A prospective cohort study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 66(14), 1538-1548.

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