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Reforms and Modernization in Asia in the 20th Century

Revolution is an extreme and in-depth change in customs of behaving and thinking for instance Industrial revolution. Revolution is therefore, the central development of the contemporary world. Many people believe that modernity could only be realized through brutal and whole revolution (Hawes and Lui 45). Reform movement is a societal movement with an aim of bringing ongoing change rather than elemental or quick changes. Modernization is the consistent evolutionary conversion from a ‘traditional’ or ‘pre-modern’ to a ‘modern’ humanity. Modernization is achieved through the industrialization and urbanization in a nation.

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The drastic industrialization is achieved by the modernization and urbanization leading to the wide stretch of the education. The twentieth century revolution in Asia was due to Euro-American imperialism force, which begun earlier in nineteenth century. This was because of raw materials available in the Asian countries. India was colonized by British from the eighteenth century before the small growing political organization begun to rebel in the twentieth century. This fight was not only targeting liberty but also to change their societies internally. Many people thought that becoming modern required the abolition of the previous hierarchies and the establishment of innovative, extra societal relations (Shirk 23).

Mohandas Gandhi was one of the great men who stood to the “traditional” Indians ways by rejecting Western stimulated “evolution”. National sovereignty is realized through revolution leading to the internal transformation. The multiplicity and understanding of the revolution is essential for communal and political revolution to contemporary Asian narration. Some countries are already appreciating their understandings of revolution and its benefits to their economic growth in the recent years (Shirk 43). During the half of the nineteenth century, cultural nationalism appeared in India. The Hindu religion was consolidated and thus many studies based on the influence of Hinduism have been done by scholars leading to “the rise of Hindu nationalism” as a clichéd narrative. The year of the birth of cultural nationalism was marked and is celebrated; so many authors have written books to explain these events for instance a nationalistic novel called Anandamath by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyaya.

In Japan, industrialization began in 19th century while in East Asia it followed in the late 20th century with a diverse pattern. The major reasons for the observed rapid growth in the so called Asia tigers include reduced custom duties, a motivated work force with limited training, strategic geographical location, effective and stable governments, increased investments, exchange rates that were competitive, stable planned societies among others. India and China made adaptations in procession with their own cultures and histories to their greater height in industrial revolution. Currently Indian is directing most of its resources in education is emphasizes on technology, biotechnology, pharmaceutical and other field in this category. The main aim of this expansion is to create specialization and to surmount foreign markets (Hawes and Lui 56). For instance, India and China have made great investments in most of the third world countries thus play a key role in the today’s world economy.

The extraordinary economic growth of Asia can be related to the following four elements: trained and educated personnel, cheap locally available workforce that works for long hours, through their high saving rate they have injected a large amount of capital into the financial system and setting factors to enhance the competence of the above mentioned elements. The main aspects in the economy are production factors, but others such as institutions, politics, ideology and policies contributes to the performance of the economy. Their impact is felt on the efficiency with which the production factors are pooled (Shirk 87). On the other hand, the ideologies and policies affect market competence through their sound effects on industrial changes and the amount and type of the human being. And substantial capital accumulated by the financial system over a period of time.

The unprecedented rise of the Asian continent also be attributed to great emphasis placed a family as both the basic social as well as economic unit. The Asian progressive dictatorial government refused to listen to the claims of individual interest thus is of great importance in the current development and the future development of economic growth in Asia (Hawes and Lui 76). The government had powers to resist the claims of special-interest group has a greater capacity to set financial policy to congregate the national concern and initiate policy changes when indispensable. This has resulted in reduced taxes, state expenditure and minute, if any, provision of the well being of common citizens. Asia has grown so fast due to the break out of the special-interest catch that lobby-based democracies countenance. China and India are in tight competition within Asia, though China plays a major role than India.

Industrial revolution has improved the standards of living that people enjoy in Asia now. Industrialization led to the change of the countries’ citizens from principally rural to being principally urban. There has been huge increase in the number of inhabitants in the cities hence superior metropolitan than pastoral population as a result of revolution. There were increased number of job opportunities and social infrastructures improving the living standards of the citizens. There was cheap labor due to the larger population in Asia and this led to exploitation of the available human labor. The workers were paid little money compared to the work they did and this encouraged the parents to include the whole family in the workforce to get much more money. Women and children were paid peanuts while they worked harder, and were preferred as workers by many employers (Shirk 93).

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Works cited

Hawes, Gui &Liu Han. Explaining the Dynamics of the Southeast Asian Political Economy, State, Society, and the Search for Economic Growth. London: Macmillan publishers, 2006. Print.

Shirk, Shartan. The Political Logic of Economic Reform in China. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1993. Print.

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StudyCorgi. (2021) 'Reforms and Modernization in Asia in the 20th Century'. 23 December.

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