According to the notion of Karma, each action that a person does have outcomes known as repercussions. It is within the context of the repercussions that the notion encourages people to do things, which are good and stay away from bad activities (Moore and Bruder 488). The Karma notion claims that people evolve through a number of stages in their livelihoods.
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The evolution that people undergo in their livelihoods is a representation of their life cycles. The feeling of happiness and satisfaction that a person develops after enlightenment and tranquility is a provision elucidated by the notion of Nirvana. Moreover, the notion of Nirvana explains that the state of tranquility and happiness ends the recreation course and sequence.
The Hindu concept known as Brahman outlines matters related to the actual state of affairs that affect the real life of an individual. According to this idea, the Supreme Being, which is God, lives eternally and is a spirit. The idea holds the concept that the Supreme Being is one and the only creature that has such qualities. In the assertion of Moore and Bruder, the idea of Brahman helps to uphold humanity and godliness in the minds of individuals (488). The idea of Atman represents the soul and concerns aspects connected with the character of people. In the determination of the daily lives of people, the Atman idea is very helpful as it deals with matters that affect the soul.
The four noble truths of Buddha relate to suffering and its management. In the first truth, Buddha explains that suffering is real and prevails in our daily lives. Moreover, the second truth, Buddha asserts that suffering is a result or an outcome of distinct and clear causes.
According to the third noble truth of Buddha, a person has the power and the ability to end suffering. Buddha elaborates that people can manage and end suffering through the application of the 8-fold path in the fourth truth (Moore and Bruder 490). Buddha’s view about suffering provides a certain level of correctness because it gives concise information about suffering and its management using the four noble truths.
The ‘8-fold path’ is a concept that helps individuals to live in harmony. In the concept, the eight rights are crucial in a productive life of a person. According to Moore and Bruder, the rights include right view, right aim, right speech, and right living (492). Additionally, right action, right effort, right mindfulness, and right contemplation are some of the rights that the concept presents. Significantly, successful application of the rights facilitates productive living and minimizes conflicts and disagreements.
The concept of Tao, which is natural and eternal, concerns the manner in which people undertake their daily activities. Moreover, the concept is practical in the design and shape of various things. Philosophers like Lao Tzu point out that the design and shape of things that Tao facilitates is due to its bowl like shape, which is instrumental in shaping the series and sequences of events and activities (Moore and Bruder 497). The relationship between Yin, Yang, and Tao arises from the fact that Yin and Yang are two contractive forces, which are outcomes of Tao.
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Effortless non-striving is a notion that Lao Tzu uses to explain that people can achieve the objectives of life without necessarily using force. In his opinion, Lao Tzu highlights that people should apply factors like flexibility, civility, and tranquility in their quest to achieve objectives of life (Moore and Bruder 498).
Lao Tzu argues that effortless non-striving occurs since the application factors like civility, tranquility, and flexibility does not require the use of force, but they successfully lead to the achievement of goals. Furthermore, the use of these factors minimizes challenges like negative reactions that arise with the use of force or violence, which require a level of effort, to achieve personal demands and objectives.
According to Confucius’ principle of Mean, the standards that Mean defines, dictate how events take place. In the principle, things attain success only if they follow the standards that the Mean provides. Confucius explains that individuals need to stay away from bad activities and strive to undertake right activities. Engaging in moral activities is a fact that the principle promotes since it facilitates moderate living and reduces the harmful effects of extreme behaviors (Moore and Bruder 504). When people abide by the provisions of the mean, tranquility, and peace prevails, and thus, mutual coexistence between people and nature succeeds.
The views of Murasaki Shikibu place women in a position lower than men in the society. In the opinion of Murasaki, the salvation of a male only occurs during their second chance as a woman. The second chance that men have as women takes place since Murasaki believes that women are men, who had lived bad lives in their first lives. In the assertion of Moore and Bruder, women are men trying to live good lives during their second chances (518). Evidently, Murasaki believes that women are not subject to any kind of deliverance irrespective of their good qualities.
Anselm uses the concept of perception to point out that God really lives. In his argument, Anselm states that since God is a being that is beyond human perception, he exists. The fact that God supersedes the perception of the mind implies that he really lives (Moore and Bruder 9). Reducto ad absurdum is a concept that compounds Anselm’s argument concerning the existence of God.
The objection of Guanilo is an outcome of the views and opinions of other philosophers like St. Anselm, who state that God exists because he is beyond the conception of the mind. According to Guanilo, things that are inconceivable in the mind do not exist (Moore and Bruder 399). To advocate for his objection, Guanilo uses a perfect island and explains that if the island is not conceivable then it does not exist. In the view of Guanilo, the island needs to have a conception of the mind for it to exist.
The presence of a being, which controls how things occur, is the first way that Aquinas uses to explain God’s existence. The being, who initiates the existence of other beings is the second way used by Aquinas to elucidate the existence of God. In the third way, the necessity of other creatures occasions due to a supreme creator, who brings them to life. According to Moore and Bruder, Aquinas explains that God exists and is the source of good values like goodness and truthfulness in his fourth way (402). The journey of creatures from birth to death through a given life cycle makes the fifth way used by Aquinas to justify the existence of God.
Leibniz statement that “this is the best of all possible worlds,” implies that not all creations of God are perfect. In his explanation, Leibniz highlights that since some creations are imperfect, they are vulnerable to errors and shortcomings that he considers as evil. Therefore, Leibniz elucidates that individuals must understand that evil is an outcome of the imperfect nature of God’s creation and learn to value his perfect side (Moore and Bruder 412). One of the factors that lead to my disagreement with Leibniz assertions relates to his failure to give a clear elaboration on his opinion, and thus, leaves the reader with several unanswered questions.
Friedrich Nietzsche believes that the concept of God and his existence has its basis in the minds of individuals, who follow the norms of the society. Moore and Bruder explain that Nietzsche claims that God is dead because his presumed existence is a lie (411). Nietzsche points out the fact that all procedures and patterns of the world are under God’s control is a lie that the society presents to naïve individuals.
The views of James William concerning religious beliefs presents the fact that people should not rely on their intelligence , but instead accept religious provisions. To compound his argument about accepting religious provisions, William explains that sometimes people refuse to abide by religious provisions, and thus, do not enjoy the benefits of these provisions. Failure to enjoy the provisions of religion emanates from the reliance on intelligence, which leads to the protective nature of individuals from mistakes and errors.
The fact that I believe in God, who created the earth, all that live on it, and redeemed man from sin leads to the possibility that my religious views are right. The ability of God to create the earth, all that live on it, and redeem human beings, makes him real and authenticates the correct nature of my religious views. In addition, the validity of my religious beliefs emanates from the fact that they deal with a God, who has solutions to several questions that challenge various philosophers of the world.
Moore, Brooke, and Kenneth Bruder. Philosophy: The Power of Ideas. California: McGraw-Hill, 2011. Print.