Internal Female Reproductive Organs
The system of internal female reproductive organs includes glands (ovaries), cervix, and uterus. Also, fallopian tubes and vagina are part of it. Fallopian tubes are narrow tubes with a pronounced muscular layer, which are constantly shrinking. Their mucous membrane consists of cells with cilia (deWit & Kumagai, 2012). They create the movement of fluid from the cavity of the small pelvis to the uterine cavity.
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Fallopian tubes have several basic functions. First, through them, a mature egg makes a transition to the uterine cavity during the period of ovulation. During this pathway, impregnation can occur if the sperm enters the tube. Second, after the egg has been fertilized, it continues to move to the uterus (deWit & Kumagai, 2012). The muscles of the canal are contracted in order to help it move farther. The epithelium is also involved in this process. After 4-7 days, the egg leaves the uterine cavity.
Male internal reproductive organs
Male internal reproductive organs produce germ cells, sperm, and seminal fluid. This system includes testes and appendages of the testicles, vas deferens, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, and seminal vesicles. The urethra is an organ that is part of both the urinary and reproductive systems (deWit & Kumagai, 2012). The main function of the seminal gland is to participate in the production of semen. It carries liquid, which is combined with sperm.
The prostate gland has several functions. First, it produces secretion, which contains substances necessary for the work of the reproductive system. Second, the gland is involved in the transportation of semen into the urethra (deWit & Kumagai, 2012). Ejaculation occurs during the contraction of smooth muscle fibers. Third, the organ dilutes the sperm. Consequently, it ensures its viability.
Stages of labor
Women experience three stages of labor. The first phase is called early labor. At this stage, the cervix dilates. A woman can experience initial contractions that cause the uterus to thin out and stretch so that the child’s head can pass through the birth canal. The second stage is called active labor. During this period, the child moves down the pelvis, and the uterus continues to open (deWit & Kumagai, 2012). During active labor, contractions are intensified and become prolonged. The third phase is called the transition stage. It is the shortest phase during which the cervix is fully opened and expanded. The frequency of contractions reaches its peak. At the end of this period, the delivery of the placenta occurs.
Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) have different functions. During the menstrual cycle, FSH induces ovum maturation and causes estrogen release. Under the influence of this hormone, follicles mature in the ovaries, and eggs reach maturity (Costanzo, 2013). Also, FSH stimulates the conversion of androgens to estrogenic hormones. In its turn, lutropin causes ovulation and corpus luteum evolution.
The fertile time is all days during the menstrual cycle when a woman can become pregnant as a result of unprotected sexual intercourse. A female can get pregnant one week before ovulation. However, a woman reaches her peak of fertility in 1-2 days after the egg has been released.
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A dominant gene reflects patterns of inheritance. It is expressed in the phenotype regardless of the presence of another allele (variant) of this gene in the genome (Costanzo, 2013). Dominant genes always suppress recessive ones. For instance, the allele for hazel eyes is strong. Therefore, in a couple in which one parent has hazel eyes and the other one has light eyes (blue), the child is likely to be born with dark eyes.
Costanzo, L. S. (2013). Physiology (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.
deWit, S. C., & Kumagai, C. K. (2012). Medical-surgical nursing: Concepts & practice (2nd ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.