The press involves various materials that include the media, machines and other printed items. The main aim of the press is ideally to inform the masses. History has it because most of the information we get is from the press. The press has undergone a revolution which in many aspects has been beneficial to many. Historians in their part have used the press to communicate and give views on different issues and, at the same time criticize.
Adrian and Elizabeth have started their articles with some kind of dialogue. Adrian commends Elizabeth on her article about the way she handles the printing culture. This, he says, shows printing press as an instrument of transformation. This also explains why she talks of unacknowledged revolution. She notes that “although everyone seemed to agree that the consequences of the advent printing were of great importance, they all stopped short of telling us just what those consequences were………A beginning is what I attempted to provide.”
This tends to help Adrian in his work, and, he agrees that it is important to be grateful to Elizabeth for her efforts to get a comparison. Elizabeth also addresses Adrian directly and talks about the differences they face. She says that the formulation of questions they ask is the center of their differences.
This clearly shows the dialogue between these two writers. Their main aim is to evaluate the press revolution and address the issues concerning it. This is because modern printing is very different from early printing. They both agree on the revolution of the press and its changes in society.
There is an argument between Adrian and Elizabeth on their historical work. Adrian is trying to criticize her works. Particularly, in the article “printing press as an agent of change,” Adrian finds foul where historians have applied some of her information to inform the masses. According to Adrian, this is wrong since her way of giving information does not conform to what is at stake today. The two historians disagree on some issues that regard to the revolution of the press.
The book on ‘The Nature of The Book’ is part of their argument. Elizabeth insists that her perspective to view the situations is very different. Further, she says that the aerial view of a landscape is different from that on the ground. This justifies that she has her own opinion regarding the printing press.
John insists that Elizabeth’s work as centrally about the history of books. The argument is countered by Elizabeth, who states that John did not have a good look at her illustrations on the book. Religion is one of the areas of argument where Elizabeth claims that John dismisses her contrastive view of censorship.
Elizabeth also opposes Johns to focus on major European powers neglecting the minor powers. John sees this as an objection by Elizabeth on the concerns of local labors. Elizabeth defends her position with the use of quotes in her book that an article in 1964 misled her.
Information dissemination is different regarding the two historians. The text used is very different to exchange of knowledge which, is a factor that the historians should deal with. Chronology of Gutenberg commemoration, according to Elizabeth, is not simple. She further states that it started way before Isaac Newton and James Watt. The arguments of the two authors are based on the printing press and its revolution.
The printing press has gone miles in terms of growth. John, on his side, wants to show how Elizabeth printing work has changed the views of historians. He uses some quotes from her books, to express his views on most of Elizabeth’s work. Although they may seem to criticize one another, various issues in the printing press are well outlaid. The only difference that may be seen is that early printing is not the same as modern printing.
This has as well revolutionized modern historians, as most of them have improved their cases. The evidence they present is also in a way similar as their arguments are easily countered. Historians have also been monitoring the values of printing for many years. The statement shows how printing has changed the concerns of the authors as it has undergone a revolution.
Benedictine recorded printing invention as a great achievement and used it to make his work. Benedictine also used it to buy modern work at low prices and trade to ignorant librarians. According to him, hand made books are superior as compared to printed works.
Many other authors have wrestled with the subject of printing. Several questions have been asked, like when printing first was discovered. The expansion of bibliography as a recognized regulation and most of its proponents cataloged and sorted written materials. Many careers came into place with the printing press like the typists, new trade style and advertising.
These careers, according to authors depict how modern printing helped societies. Some new tools were used to answer to questions historians had. Historians like Lucien and other historians of the Annales School showed that tracing could be done on how printing changed the lives of authors and readers. Diagnostic tools were also used to measure the temperature and texture of a whole culture.
The historians also joined in giving various contributions to the printing press. This gave printing different styles as Roger Chartier and Robert Darn ton used printing history as a key to their work. Bob Scribner addressed propaganda forms in protestant rectification in the course of the history of printing. Carlo Ginzburg rebuilt the empire of the individual reader. This made the printing steadily mount to a turf where historians and others could deliberate and team up while practicing various historical research.
This gives an argument that is different from that of John and Elizabeth. The later authors use the history of printing to move ahead and give proper information to others and, also inform them. Elizabeth and John, to some extent, influence them since the same tools that they used were later used to measure the credibility of the printing press. The revolution of the printing press makes an impact on historians in their endeavors. They also seem to share their ground as well as learn from the manuscripts and scribes from early centuries.
The arguments of the different historians can be accounted for in rather a different way. The later authors acknowledge the work of Elizabeth in the unacknowledged revolution. This talks more about printing and its evolution. Although John does not agree with Elizabeth in the part of ‘The Nature of the Book,’ it does not affect the later authors.
According to Elizabeth, ‘The Nature of the Book’ has attracted many accolades and prizes, but, it seems to treat the shifting of the script to print as inconsequential. Adrian, on his part, does not agree with Elizabeth, and this gives them a different opinion on printing history. John wants to show that, ‘The Nature of the Book’ acknowledges printing, which is different from what she thinks.
The authors that come later into writing about the printing press contend with an unacknowledged revolution. This explains why they were seeking more knowledge about printing. Many of their questions regarding printing are asked in most of their works. This proves Elizabeth’s questions on printing and its impact on the other historians. The revolution of the printing press came at a time when most of the historians were cynical in trying to use the improved techniques.
Many of the stories placed centuries apart, cannot be similar, according to Elizabeth. However, John has an idea that these stories can find a feature that joins them. All in all, their arguments cannot be ignored, as they give options and knowledge on the history of the printing press. It is no doubt that their work helps other historians take a big step towards a great achievement in the history of printing.
The arguments presented by the two historians, that is Elizabeth and John can all be countered in different ways. The later historians use their arguments, to come up with a more elaborative history of the press. Although they try and twist the issue at hand, their arguments are as a result of Elizabeth and Adrian. Several concepts in the historian’s work came from earlier printed information.
Protestant reformation issue is a good indicator whereby, scribes and manuscripts as part of the printing press were helpful. The historians all agree that printing press brought change to the entire society. Hard copy books and manuscripts stayed long past the printers had started to work. This makes historians talk more about the revolution of the press. The agreement on issues of printing by the historians indicates that they all have seen the evolution of the printing press.
The historians also adopted the use of bibliography and chronology, which is part of the evolution of the printing press. The dialogue created between Adrian and Elizabeth is a sign that they all enjoyed the printing press as they can give their views and try to understand one another. Historians have also put into consideration the culture of reading and writing. This is one of the successes of the printing press as encroachment in the printing press is felt.
The revolution of the printing press is seen in these editions since many of the historians give their account on the printing press. From as early as the eighteenth century to the twentieth century the growth of the press is felt by the authors. The arguments of Elizabeth and Adrian are a major boost to the education of the printing press on other historians. This shows that they all accept and agree that the press has undergone a revolution.
Adrian, John. How To Acknowledge A Revolution. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2002.
Einstein, Elizabeth. An Unacknowledged Revolution Revisited. USA: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Einstein, Elizabeth. Reply. USA: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Grafton, Anthony. How Revolutionary Was The Print Revolution. USA: Cambridge University, 2002.