Memory is the capacity of the brain to retain and voluntarily restore information. It is an ability that allows people to recall events that have occurred, thoughts, feelings, concepts, and the relationship between them. Even though the hippocampus is most associated with memory, it is impossible to attribute memories to only one part of the brain since many brain areas are involved in this process. This ability is one of the cognitive functions that suffer most with aging. Despite this, memory can be trained with the help of mental stimulation and various intellectual games.
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There are different types of memory and it is divided into such levels as long-term memory, short-term and sensory. The sensory memory contains information received from the sensory organs: sight, smell, and hearing, and lasts for only a few seconds. Sensory memory calls only those moments of events that occur at the present moment (Tripathy & Ögmen, 2018). In learning, sensory memory helps to form a complete picture of a certain subject, by receiving information from the sensory organs to the brain.
Before information is stored in long-term memory, it needs to get into short-term memory. Short-term memory is characterized by the ability of the brain to store a small amount of information for a short time (Camina & Güell, 2017). When short-term memory is activated, neurons in the prefrontal cortex of the brain are active. In learning, short-term memory is necessary when memorizing a large amount of information. For example, studying the chapters of a textbook or, if necessary, remembering several numbers, short-term memory is used.
If it is necessary to remember information for a longer time, the information passes from short-term memory to long-term memory. Camina and Güell (2017) state that long-term memory refers to an unlimited amount of information stored for a long time, even throughout life. When forming a long-term memory, the hippocampus takes information from short-term memory and changes the brain’s neural connections. The data is stored as long as the extracted information is used. In learning, long-term memory is essential when remembering a large amount of information that needs to be stored.
Memory retention is the ability of the brain to remember, and after some time to recall information. Students and students receive information from sources, and remember it. After some time, this information must be retained, for example, in some life situations or even on an exam. In this case, the memory retention mechanism works, and it gives them the opportunity to remember what they once studied. The process of knowledge transfer occurs when people apply this acquired knowledge to a new situation.
Sensory development is significant, especially in the early stages of development. It is necessary to involve the students in learning sensory perception. For example, they can tour the garden with plants, where they will have an opportunity to touch, to smell and to see these plants. This will impact the complexity of sense organs at once and will allow students to know the world. In addition, they will remember what kind of plant it was, relying on sensory memories. One more strategy for developing sensory memory can be listening to different styles of music and songs. Perceiving songs by ear, people will remember what kind of music is characterized by audio terms.
In conclusion, many types of memory describe the duration of memorizing information in different ways. Any memory must be developed from an early age, since in the future, relying on the knowledge once obtained will be easier to navigate in current situations. Often, the development of memory occurs in the process of learning something new. In addition, memorizing information activates the brain, which is also vital in learning, cognition of the world, and orientation in life situations.
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Camina, E & Güell, F. (2017). The neuroanatomical, neurophysiological and psychological basis of memory: Current models and their origins. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 8(438), 1-16. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2017.00438
Tripathy, S. & Ögmen, H. (2018). Sensory memory is allocated exclusively to the current event-segment. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 9(1435), 1-13. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01435