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Role of Parental Involvement in the Modern Era

Factors that affect academic achievement and adjustment are a matter of increased interest among scholars. Recent research revealed that students are affected by a myriad of factors that can be subdivided into four categories: academic, social, cultural, and financial (Son & Cho, 2020). Family is also known to have a considerable impact on students’ academic performance (Al-Fadley et al., 2016; Hill et al., 2016; Zhang, 2020). On the one hand, parents’ involvement in their children’s education is known to have a positive impact on academic success. First, parental involvement was found to have a significant correlation with students’ competence levels (Berthelsen & Walker, 2008). Second, Al-Fadley et al. (2018) found that parental involvement positively influences foreign language learning and literacy. Third, parents’ involvement in education is positively correlated with students’ academic and emotional adjustment and negatively associated with delinquency (Barger et al., 2016). Thus, parental involvement seems to be beneficial for students.

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However, parents may also negatively affect students’ academic life. First, parents may have increased expectations of teachers and schools in general (Moore & Lasky, 1999). Additionally, frequent contacts of parents with teachers may lead to ab increased number of conflicts between parents and schools (Moore & Lasky, 1999). Second, parents’ involvement can decrease children’s self-efficacy when interfering with school activities (Romani, 2016). Third, over-protection and increased interference in school activity may lead to bullying (Romani, 2016). Thus, parental involvement is a complicated matter that should be discussed from all sides to understand the peculiarities of the phenomenon.

The present paper offers a literature review on the topic of parental involvement in children’s academic life. The purpose of this review is to determine the current state of knowledge concerning parental involvement is students’ education process. After that, the paper provides critical discussion of the results and draws conclusions about the matter of interest. The present research is meant to help educators understand how parents can influence the children’s performance and what strategies they can use to ensure positive learners’ outcomes.

Scope

The capstone project aims to answer two research questions:

  1. Does parental involvement have a positive impact on children’s educational, psychological, and social development?
  2. Does parental involvement have a positive impact on children’s academic success?

In order to answer the research questions, the present project will need to accomplish several goals. First, it will need to review the current literature on the topic to acquire background information. This goal will be achieved by selecting appropriate data sources, such as academic databases, journals, and books, choosing relevant sources, summarizing the findings, and structuring the information in a comprehendible manner. Second, critical appraisal of literature needs to be conducted. The goal can be achieved by assessing the methods, results, and conclusions of research for consistency and evaluating the credentials of authors. Possible biases will also need to be assessed. Third, the acquired information should be checked for controversies and consistency. This can be achieved by juxtaposing the findings of various authors on the same topic. Particular attention should be given to the generalizability of findings and a nuanced understanding of results. Finally, conclusions should be drawn and recommendations provided. This goal can be achieved by critically analyzing all the collected data with a particular focus on the recommendations of different authors. Most frequent and curious recommendations should be provided so that parents and schools can implement them.

The scope of the project requires to review the literature on relationships between children, students, and schools. While the research question does not explicitly mention teachers and school authorities, they are crucial stakeholders, and their importance is evident. Appraisal of literature is also vital, as it allows to understand what information sources can be trusted and what knowledge is more valuable. Controversy check is also crucial, as it can help to understand if there are any opposing views to the mainstream suggestions. Thus, the number of goals and objectives is optimal to answer the research questions.

Key Concepts

The present project will utilize the concepts of parental involvement, collaboration, academic achievement, and child development. The present project will utilize the following definition for the key concepts:

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  1. Parental involvement – a situation when parents are directly involved in the education process of their children by participating in school activity and the learning process, while fulfilling “their duties as parents in making sure that the learner is assisted in the process of learning as much as they possibly can” (Ntekane, 2018, p. 1).
  2. Collaboration – working together using efficient strategies to achieve a common goal.
  3. Academic achievement – average academic performance in school classes assessed using various qualitative and quantitative methods, such as teacher reports, grades, and self-assessment.
  4. Child development – sequence of physical, emotional, and psychological changes that occur before adulthood.

Research Strategy

Method

The primary method utilized to answer the research question was to literature review and analysis. The goal was to select recent articles concerning the role of parental involvement and analyze the content for reliability and validity. After that, all the findings needed to be synthesized and checked for consistency with a chosen theoretical frame work. The present study was guided by Epstein’s Overlapping Spheres of Influence framework discussed in Section 4.4 of the present paper.

Source Selection Strategy

After a general area of interest is identified, the next step is finding sources for the literature review to understand the current state of knowledge on the subject. Currently, researchers do not have to leave their homes to acquire access to the latest books and scholarly articles. The information can be accessed through academic databases on the topic of interest. The researcher only needs to choose the most appropriate keywords, evaluate the sources, and ensure compliance with all ethical and legal restrictions on the use of published, confidential, and proprietary information. The present section describes all steps of source findings in the required detail.

Databases and Key Words

New Jersey State Library was used to select the appropriate databases for source search. New Jersey State Library includes information about 206 databases that are divided into subjects. The search of databases on education generated 16 results, including EBSCO eBooks, Education Database, ERIC, Professional Development Collection, and Teacher Reference Center (New Jersey State Library, n.d.). In addition to these databases, JSTOR, ScienceDirect, and Research Gate were searched to find relevant articles and books. The final paper includes sources from ScienceDirect, and Research, and ERIC databases.

A variety of keywords were used to find sources on parental involvement in their children’s education process. In particular, the words “parental involvement,” “factors affecting student success,” “impact of parental involvement,” “factors of student success,” “parent school collaboration,” and “parents communication strategies.” While some of these keywords generated valuable results specific to the topic, others were inappropriate for finding sources for the present literature review. For instance, “factors affecting student success” generated a large variety of non-specific results that were difficult to use; therefore, it was decided to exclude these keywords. “Parent school collaboration” and “impact of parental involvement” were found to generate the most useful search results. In order to ensure the relevancy of all sources, abstracts were read, and themes discussed in the articles were analyzed. Additionally, the origin of all the articles was assessed to make sure that all the articles were published in education-related journals.

Evaluation of Sources

Evaluation of sources is a crucial step in every research paper, as it helps to understand the reliability and validity of the presented information. According to Lester and Lester (2017), appraisal of sources includes an assessment of the authors’ competence, the analysis of literature review, evaluation of methods, and consideration of results and discussions. First, the credentials and publishing history of all authors were checked to ensure that the researchers have the required skills and knowledge to conduct research in education. Second, it was assessed if the authors used relevant and up-to-date sources for the literature review. Third, it was evaluated if the research design was adequate to answer the research questions and fulfill the purpose of the study. Fourth, results and discussion sections were assessed for consistency.

The final sample of sources included in the present paper consists of highly relevant sources. The majority of the sources are less than five years old to ensure that all the knowledge is up to date. However, some outdated sources are also included in the literature review to acquire a historical perspective on the subject. Even though some flaws in research design were found in some sources, they were no critical.

Ethical and Legal Considerations

All the articles were checked to adhere to ethical standards of research. In particular, if the research design required the acquisition of primary data, it was assessed if forms of informed consent were signed, and the study was approved by the institutional review body. All the sources included in the present literature review adhere to the highest ethical standards. In terms of legal considerations, it was assured that all the articles were in the open access, and the terms and conditions of their use were checked. Additionally, all the sources were properly cited in the reference page, and intext citations were included to ensure legal compliance.

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Literature Review

Major Themes

Impact of Parental Involvement

There is increasing evidence that parental involvement in the academic life of their children is associated with improved academic performance and adjustment of children. Al-Fadley et al. (2018) conducted a qualitative study utilizing Epstein’s Overlapping Spheres of Influence framework. According to the theory, there are six types of family involvement: parenting, communicating, volunteering, learning at home, decision-making, and collaborating with the community (Al-Fadley et al., 2018). The researchers conducted a series of interviews, analyzed documents, and observed activities to evaluate the effect of parental involvement on foreign language learning. The results revealed that parental involvement in forms of communication, learning at home, and collaboration with the community had a positive impact on students’ learning outcomes.

Lara and Saracostti (2019) conducted a quantitative study to understand the association between children’s academic performance and parental involvement. After conducting a correlational analysis of a sample of 498 parents and guardians, the researchers concluded that academic success was higher among children whose parents actively participated in their academic life. According to Ntekane (2018), improved academic performance can be explained by the fact that students become more focused on their studies and are less likely to miss classes as parents monitor their attendance and performance. Additionally, parents help to avoid giving up easily and develop responsibility (Ntekane, 2018).

These results were generalized by a systematic review conducted by Barger et al. (2019). A quantitative synthesis of 448 independent studies revealed a positive association between academic achievement, engagement, and motivation and parents’ naturally occurring involvement in their children’s education (Barger et al., 2019). In addition to improved academic performance, parental involvement decreases the chance of delinquency and improves social and emotional adjustment.

Parental involvement in their children’s academic life means active and frequent communication with teachers and school authorities. Hence, there arises a problem of possible conflicts between these stakeholders. According to Moore and Lasky (1999), teachers and parents may fail to achieve partnership due to inadequate communication strategies. As a result, there may appear an atmosphere of distrust, political tension, and alienation (Moore & Lasky, 1999). Additionally, “conflicting beliefs about rights, expertise, abilities, and cultural stereotypes cast teachers and parents into ‘adversarial’ rather than collaborative relationships” (Moore & Lasky, 1999, p. 15). Thus, parental involvement may lead to conflicts between stakeholders.

Another possible problem that may arise is over protection. According to Romani (2016), increased interference in school activity from over-protective parents may lead to bullying (Romani, 2016). Moreover, helping students with their homework may result in decreased academic achievement (Barger et al., 2019; Romani, 2016). Finally, parents that interfere with their children’s schoolwork can lead to children’s lack of ability to make decisions (Romani, 2016). Thus, it is crucial that parents limit their interference in the academic life of their children to avoid negative consequences.

Promotion of Independence

The results of numerous qualitative studies reveal that parents need to promote independence in their children. Hill et al. (2016) conducted a qualitative assessment of the viewpoints of three key stakeholders, including parents, students, and teachers. All the stakeholders agreed that independence is the key objective of parental involvement. While there are many theories that explain the strategy for the promotion of independence among adolescents; however, they sometimes may be inapplicable to children (Hill et al., 2016). However, parents claim that the most efficient strategies to scaffold independence are letting children make mistakes and asking children’s opinions instead of advising (Hill et al., 2016). Romani (2016) also mentions that over-protective parents often refuse to let their children deal with any situations independently. This may result in significant problems with social adjustment and bullying problems (Romani, 2016). Thus, the promotion of independence is crucial to help children improve their grades and help them deal with problems at school.

Parents-School Collaboration

Parent-school collaboration is a common theme discussed by multiple researchers. Ntekane (2018) states that schools should utilize efficient strategies for promoting parental involvement in the educational process of their children to help them realize the associated benefits. According to Ntekane (2018), schools can go out to the community or publicize school matters using flyers, announcements, phone calls, emails, and even television. However, the use of traditional methods is often inefficient for attracting parents’ attention (Ntekane, 2018). Therefore, schools should use the latest evidence to best practices to search for non-traditional methods for attracting parents to the academic life of their children.

Non-traditional methods for school-parents collaboration is described by McLoughlin (2020). For instance, parents can participate in learning walks, during which students exchange opinions about complicated subjects (McLoughlin, 2020). During such walks, children are assisted by encouraged to express their views freely without the fear of being misunderstood (McLoughlin, 2020). The participation of parents can help them get to know their children from a different side (McLoughlin, 2020). Additionally, schools can create monthly teas with parents, during which various topics are discussed (McLoughlin, 2020). During these meetings, parents talk in an informal atmosphere, which can help them bond with teachers and other parents and create functional relationships (McLoughlin, 2020). Moreover, parents can be encouraged to unite in groups of activists to promote awareness about sensitive topics. For instance, McLoughlin (2020) describes the village of wisdom, a group that enhances awareness about methods of raising African American males. In summary, there is a myriad of creative strategies to promote parental involvement.

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Lam et al. (2018) provide other examples of conservative ways to improve collaboration between schools and parents. On the one hand, schools can provide education to parents about the common issues and challenges students face and possible mitigation strategies (Lam et al., 2018). On the other hand, schools should ensure the transparency of the education process and increase the frequency of contact with parents (Lam et al., 2018). Schools should use all possible means of communication with parents, including face-to-face communication, online forums, social media, and questionnaires. Utilization of efficient strategies for school-parents collaborations is associated with a decreased amount of conflicts, increased understanding of the learning process, and realization of students’ needs (Lam et al., 2018; McLoughlin, 2020; Ntekane, 2018).

Effective Communication between Children and Parents

Recent research conducted by Lara and Saracostti (2019) claims that children whose parents have low involvement level have decreased academic achievements. This finding suggests that the amount (or the quantity) of parental involvement is positively correlated with students’ academic achievement. However, Zhang (2020) indicates that there is no significant correlation between the quantity of parental participation in their children’s lives and the students’ academic achievement. Instead, it is the quality of parent-child communication that matters. Zhang (2020) claims that trusting supportive relationships, which promote collective decision-making, are associated with improved academic success. Additionally, Hill et al. (2016) also claim that the vector of communication is more important than the amount. Thus, there is a significant disagreement between different scholars on the subject of what is more important: quality or quantity of involvement. Thus, it appears that the quality of communication between children and parents is more important than the quantity.

The purpose of communication between children and their parents is to create functional relationships to deal with different types of issues. Zhang (2020) suggests sees high-quality relationships between children and parents as relationships based on trust, support, and collaborative decision-making. Hill et al. (2016) also claim that pattern of communication between children and their parents is crucial. Students believe that parents should draw connections between academic achievement and future careers (Hill et al., 2016). At the same time, parents should build relationships with their children based on the assumption that they are primary educators of their children (Hill et al., 2016). In summary, the pattern of commination between children and their parents is crucial for improving academic success and adjustment of students.

Curiosity

The findings and the research design of the study conducted by Zhang (2020) are a matter of curiosity. Before Zhang (2020), quantitative research hypothesized that mere fact of parental involvement leads to improved academic performance (Lara & Saracostti, 2019). However, the correlation between academic performance and parental involvement was low (Pearson’s R below 0.2) (Lara & Saracostti, 2019). However, little was known about the reasons for such a weak correlation, even though qualitative studies suggested significant interrelationships (Hill et al., 2016). Zhang (2020) adopted a revolutionary approach to studying the relationship between parental involvement and academic achievement. The scholar managed to quantify the quality of communication between parents and their children, which was not done before. Zhang (2020) utilized high validity instruments to measure trust, emotional support, and collective decision-making. These three factors were generalized as the quality of paternal involvement. A new approach to the research question helped Zhang (2020) to acquire quantitative evidence that the quantity of parental involvement does not have a significant correlation with students’ academic success. This evidence helps to broaden the understanding of the impact of parental involvement.

Summary

The impact of parental involvement on children’s development is a matter of increased attention from scholars. On the one hand, recent findings suggest that parents positively impact their children’s academic achievement and adjustment. On the other hand, inappropriate communication patterns between children and parents may lead to an increased chance of bullying and decreased self-efficacy. At the same time, frequent contacts between teachers and parents may lead to increased conflicts and distrust. Thus, it is crucial that all key stakeholders utilize efficient collaboration practices to improve learner outcomes.

Discussion

Major Discoveries

The analysis of literature revealed that parental involvement in children’s education is a matter of increased attention from scholars at present and historically. The search using keywords “parental involvement” on Google Scholar and academic databases, including ScienceDirect, Research Gate, and ERIC, generated more than 3 million results. The majority of articles and books on the topic discuss the impact of parental involvement on students’ academic achievement and adjustment and the strategies that key stakeholders (parents, teachers, and children) should use to improve learners’ outcomes.

All the literature reviewed in the present paper agreed that parental involvement has an influence on students’ academic achievement and adjustment. The majority of scholars agreed that parents had a positive impact on their children’s development if involved in their school activity (Al-Fadley et al., 2018; Barger et al., 2019; Ntekane, 2018; Lara & Saracostti, 2018; Zhang, 2020). Parents were found to improve children’s focus on schoolwork, motivation, engagement, and the ability to make decisions. However, the positive impact was possible only if parents utilized efficient communication practices to achieve a common goal (Zhang, 2020). The relationship full of trust and support between parents and their children has a positive impact on students’ school life (Zhang, 2020). Additionally, parents should promote independence in their children. At the same time, some studies acknowledge that parental involvement can have a negative impact on children’s academic achievement adjustment (Moore & Lasky, 1999; Romani, 2016). Thus, there is uncertainty that will be discussed later in the present section.

Effective communication between parents and schools improves academic achievement and adjustment of children. Communication between schools and parents should be based on the best practices and latest research to minimize the number of conflicts and improve understanding of students’ needs and help parents understand the learning process (Lam et al., 2018; McLoughlin, 2020; Ntekane, 2018). While traditional ways of communication (parental education sessions, face-to-face communication, online forums, social media, and questionnaires) can improve the relationships between schools and parents, the utilization of non-conventional collaborative practices (monthly teas, learning walks, and activist groups) are more effective in achieving the matter (Lam et al., 2018; McLoughlin, 2020). Thus, the collaboration between parents and schools is crucial for improving learner outcomes.

Points of Disagreement

Scientists often disagree with each other different points of topics, which creates ambiguity and uncertainty. There are numerous sources of controversies and disagreement among scholars, including biases, improper research methodologies, differing ideologies, lack of needed skills (Dieckmann & Johnson, 2019). Findings may also be based on outdated knowledge or inappropriate assumptions (Dieckmann & Johnson, 2019). The purpose of research papers is to acknowledge all the competing views and evaluate them to provide unbiased judgment. Critical appraisal of literature can help determine the reason for controversy and favor one of the competing views (Lester & Lester, 2017). The present research found two general points of disagreement discussed below.

Positive vs. Negative

As mentioned earlier, most scholars agree that parental involvement has a positive impact on students and their achievement. First, parental involvement is usually positively associated with academic achievement (Al-Fadley et al., 2018; Lam et al., 2018). According to Ntekane (2018), parental involvement is a situation when parents are directly involved in the education process of their children by participating in school activity and the learning process, while fulfilling “their duties as parents in making sure that the learner is assisted in the process of learning as much as they possibly can” (p. 1). Thus, parents’ involvement means both interactions with students and collaboration with schools. McLaughlin (2020) acknowledges the positive correlation between effective school-parent relationships and academic performance due to effective transitioning from school to home and back. Collaboration between teachers and parents leads to the creation of common goals and objectives, making the education process consistent and uninterrupted (McLaughlin, 2020). At the same time, parents assist their children with understanding difficult topics and help them fight laziness (Ntekane, 2018). Thus, the positive impact of parental involvement on students’ academic achievement is evident.

Apart from grades, parents can also influence the development of their children. According to Barger et al. (2019), parental involvement is associated with decreased delinquency and improved emotional adjustment. At the same time, parents can help with social and school adjustment by maintaining engagement and improving motivation (Barger et al., 2019). Thus, parental involvement seems to be beneficial from all sides.

However, some researchers also claim that parents may have a negative impact on their children’s development. According to Romani (2016), parents’ involvement can decrease children’s self-efficacy when interfering with school activities. Simultaneously, over-protection and increased interference in school activity may lead to bullying (Romani, 2016). Moreover, helping students with their homework may result in decreased academic achievement (Barger et al., 2019). Thus, there is inconsistency in findings, as parental involvement seems to have both negative and positive impacts on students.

Quality vs. Quantity

There is also disagreement about what is crucial: the amount of parents’ participation or the quality of parents’ involvement. On the one hand, Lara and Saracostti (2019) claim that children whose parents have low engagement have decreased academic achievements. This finding suggests that the amount (or the quantity) of parental involvement is positively correlated with students’ academic performance. On the other hand, Zhang (2020) claims that there is no significant correlation between the quantity of parental participation in their children’s lives and the students’ academic achievement. Instead, it is the quality of parent-child communication that matters. Zhang (2020) claims that trusting supportive relationships, which promote collective decision-making, are associated with improved academic success. Additionally, Hill et al. (2016) also claim that the vector of communication is more important than the amount. Thus, there is a significant disagreement between different scholars on the subject of what is more important: quality or quantity of involvement.

Personal Opinion

In order to overcome the controversy and choose a position in both cases described above, I critically appraised the articles supporting different viewpoints. I concluded that in the first case, parents might have both positive and negative impacts on children’s development and academic success. I found no flaws in methods or biases in the assumptions of different researchers. Moreover, some articles acknowledge both the positive and negative impacts of parents on their children (Hill et al., 2016; Ntekane, 2018). Thus, the influence depends on the efficiency of strategies utilized by different stakeholders. In the second case of controversy, I found weaknesses in the research design of Lara and Saracostti (2019), who claimed that academic achievement depends on the quantity of parents’ involvement. The central problem was that the researchers did consider enough control variables and did not apply any mediation models. Thus, the conclusion may be biased, as the variables (amount of parental involvement and academic achievement) might have been indirectly correlated. At the same time, I found no significant weaknesses in Zhang’s (2020) research. Thus, I concluded that the quality of communication is more important than the quantity of participation.

Considering all the evidence reviewed in the present paper, I believe that parental involvement is a crucial topic, which is not given enough attention in schools. COVID-19 pandemic revealed the importance of parent-school collaboration and parent-child communication. School lockdown made parents around the world realize their role as primary educators and become actively involved in the learning process of their children. My experience and experience of my colleagues from different schools in the US demonstrates that schools that partnered with parents managed to make sure that the learning process went uninterrupted. However, schools that failed to collaborate with parents experienced significant issues to maintain continuity of the education process. When faced with the need to control their children’s academic life, parents experienced increased stress, anger, and depression (Fontanesi et al., 2020). I believe that schools should help parents to be prepared to continue the education process without interruptions when needed.

Theory

The findings of the present paper are consistent with Epstein’s Overlapping Spheres of Influence. The theory is based upon Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model and designed from the social and organizational perspective (Harris, 2014; Kavanagh, 2013). The framework puts a child in the place where the sphere of influence of three central stakeholders (parents, school, and community) overlap (Magwa & Mugari, 2017). The theory suggests that different stakeholders complement each other to ensure the best learner outcomes (Harris, 2014; Kavanagh, 2013). According to Epstein (2001), there are three forces that affect parental involvement, including time, family beliefs, and school practices. These three forces affect parental involvement with varying intensity depending on the situation.

In general, Epstein’s Overlapping Spheres of Influence demonstrate the importance of collaboration between schools and parents and explains why the degree of parental involvement varies in different families and schools. The theory emphasizes that effective parental involvement is possible only if the beliefs and practices of both schools and families are adequate and promote functional relationships. Thus, the approach supports the conclusion that parental involvement has a significant influence on students’ development and the finding that schools should utilize the best practices to promote collaboration with parents to increase parental involvement.

Supporting Views

The majority of sources reviewed for the present paper agree with the hypothesis that parental involvement has a positive impact on students’ academic performance and adjustment if parents collaborate with teachers and utilize effective communication practices when building relationships with children. Recent quantitative research demonstrates that the positive impact of parental involvement is possible only when communication between children and their parents I based on trust, support, and collaborative decision-making (Zhang, 2020). The same research found no significant correlations between the frequency of child-parent communication and academic performance. Qualitative research confirms that parents should promote independence in their children to improve their decision-making abilities (Hill et al., 2016). Numerous qualitative studies demonstrate that schools should utilize traditional and non-traditional practices to collaborate with parents to improve learners’ outcomes (Hill et al., 2016; Lam et al., 2018; McLaughlin, 2020). Even the fact that several studies suggest that parental involvement may have a negative impact on children’s development indirectly confirms the hypothesis, as the negative impact is possible only if the relationships between schools and parents or children and parents are dysfunctional (Moore & Lasky, 1999; Romani, 2016). Therefore, it may be concluded that counter-arguments to the thesis statement of the present paper are rare.

Opposing View

A recent meta-analysis revealed that parental involvement is associated with improved academic adjustment regardless of the quality of communication (Barger et al., 2019). This finding contradicts the thesis statement that positive impact is possible only if with an increase in the quality of communication. Although this inconsistency can be explained by researchers’ failure to apply mediation models to the quantitative analysis, there is not enough evidence to confirm this assumption. Thus, the present paper revealed a significant inconsistency in the findings of different researchers that needs to be resolved.

Conclusion

The review and analysis of literature presented in this paper found significant support for the hypothesis that parental involvement has a positive impact on students’ academic performance and adjustment if parents collaborate with teachers and utilize effective communication practices when building relationships with children. The original hypothesis was that effective communication practices add to the overall positive impact of parental involvement on academic adjustment. However, after reviewing recent literature on the topic, it was realized that parental involvement without efficient communication practices has little effect on children’s development and academic performance.

In general, the analysis of literature led to several distinct conclusions. First, parental involvement is a topic of high interest among scholars and educators. Second, parental involvement has a crucial impact on children’s development and academic performance. Third, parental involvement may have both positive and negative effects on students’ adjustment depending on the communication strategies utilized by parents and schools. Finally, effective collaboration between schools and parents is vital for improving learner outcomes.

The results of the present research suggest changes in the current practices to improve the quality of parental involvement. In particular, the study proposes that schools should promote the participation of parents in the educational process of their children. School authorities should educate parents about efficient communication practices with their children. Schools need to continuously review the best practices of parental involvement to ensure the best learners’ outcomes. In summary, while the results of the present research may be useful for parents, educators should be considered as the primary audience.

The present paper a significant inconsistency in the results of various researchers concerning the role of parental involvement in the modern era. In particular, it is unclear if the quality of parental involvement is more important than “quantity.” Thus, future research should focus on gathering quantitative data to conduct correlational studies that create various mediation models. Quantitative research will help to gather evidence to resolve the inconsistency. Researchers should keep in mind that there is no evident need to conduct qualitative research on the subject, as the phenomenon is widely discussed in current scholarly literature. Instead, small gaps in knowledge should be identified and addressed.

Annotated Bibliography

Al-Fadley, A., Al-Holy, A., & Al-Adwani, A. (2018). Teacher perception of parents’ involvement in their children’s literacy and their reading instructions in Kuwait EFL Primary School Classrooms. International Journal of Education and Practice, 6(3), 120-133.

The article describes the procedures and results of a qualitative study conducted examining the effectiveness of parental involvement in Kuwait Public Schools. The results of the research revealed an overall high level of parental involvement in Kuwait and a positive influence of parental involvement on students’ ability to learn foreign languages.

Barger, M. M., Kim, E. M., Kuncel, N. R., & Pomerantz, E. M. (2019). The relation between parents’ involvement in children’s schooling and children’s adjustment: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 145(9), 855.

The article describes a meta-analysis of current literature about the influence of parental involvement on students’ academic success. The quantitative synthesis of 448 independent studies revealed a positive association between academic achievement, engagement, and motivation and parents’ naturally occurring involvement in their children’s education.

Berthelsen, D., & Walker, S. (2008). Parents’ involvement in their children’s education. Family Matters, (79), 34.

The study analyzes parental involvement in US elementary schools using quantitative methods. The results of the research suggest that the degree of parental involvement seems to be the highest in elementary school. At the same time, the authors claim that even though the quantity of contacts between schools and parents is important, quality of such contacts has the highest impact.

Dieckmann, N., & Johnson, B. (2019). Why do scientists disagree? Explaining and improving measures of the perceived causes of scientific disputes. PLOS ONE, 14(2), e0211269.

The article provides discusses the problem of disagreement of researchers. The authors of the articles claim that such differences may be based on different beliefs, assumptions, theoretical frameworks, and methods. A careful analysis of findings can help find flaws in research design.

Epstein, J.L. (2001) School, family, and community partnerships: Preparing educators and improving schools. Westview Press.

The book provides a framework for improving learners’ outcomes using Epstein’s Overlapping Spheres of Influence. The author of the book emphasizes the importance of collaboration between schools and parents to achieve the best learner outcomes among children and adolescents.

Fontanesi, L., Marchetti, D., Mazza, C., Di Giandomenico, S., Roma., P., & Verrocchio, M.C. (2020). The effect of the COVID-19 lockdown on parents: A call to adopt urgent measures. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 12(S1), S79-S81.

The article discusses the effect of lockdown and home education on parents. The authors conclude that COVID-19 measures led to depression and anger among parents, which may negatively impact the community. The article concludes that urgent measures are needed to avoid associated problems.

Harris, D. L. (2014). Exploring connections between parent involvement priorities, policies, programs and practices. DRUM. Web. 

The article describes a case study conducted in a US elementary school concerning parental involvement. The focus was to understand how school policy and stakeholder beliefs affect parental involvement. The study concluded that insufficient resources are allocated to promotion of parental involvement. Additionally, school tradition, staff nostalgia, expectations about parent initiative, and staff’s perceived lack of agency might contribute to weak parent involvement outcomes.

Hill, N., Witherspoon, D., & Bartz, D. (2016). Parental involvement in education during middle school: Perspectives of ethnically diverse parents, teachers, and students. The Journal of Educational Research, 111(1), 12-27.

The article describes a qualitative study that uses interviews and focus groups to understand the views of three central stakeholders (parents, teachers, and children) on parental involvement. The study came up with numerous recommendations to achieve functional parental involvement, including promotion of independence and connecting studies to future achievement.

Kavanagh, L. (2013). Mixed methods of investigation of parental involvement in Irish Immersion Primary Education: Integrating multiple perspectives [Doctoral theses]. Web. 

The dissertation discusses parental involvement practices in immersion primary education in Ireland. The study provides a holistic overview of all aspects of parental involvement in different circumstances. The study concludes that the level of parental involvement in Irish emersion schools is low and interventions are needed to improve it.

Lam, H. M. Y., Koong, M., Ho, K. M. C., & Wang, J. (2018). Communication matters: A comparative study of school-parent collaboration for enhancing young children’s development in Hong Kong and Mainland China. 70th OMEP World Assembly and Conference.

The study focuses parent-school collaboration practices in Hong Kong. The authors of the article suggest that schools should aim at increasing the frequency of contacts with parents. At the same time, the study promotes the idea of increased transparency of education to increase awareness of parents about the education process.

Lara, L., & Saracostti, M. (2019). Effect of parental involvement on children’s academic achievement in Chile. Frontiers in Psychology, 10.

The study examined a sample of 498 parents or guardians in Chile divided them into three profiles. After that, the researchers utilized ANOVA to compare academic performance of children in different groups. The study concluded that there is significant correlation between parental involvement and academic achievement of children.

Lester, J., & Lester, J. (2017). Writing research papers (15th ed.). Pearson.

The book describes efficient strategies for writing research papers. The major topics included in the book are literature search and review strategies, research methods, writing mechanics, and many others. The book is used by bachelor students to learn th basics of research papers.

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The study discusses the factors that affect parental involvement and student achievement based on a sample of 40 participants in four schools in Masvingo district. The study revealed that parents’ education and income levels have a significant impact on their children’s academic achievement. Additionally, the researchers concluded that positive attitude towards parental involvement among teachers leads to increased participation of parents in their children’s school life.

McLaughlin, D. V. (2020). Partner with parents: Best practices for building strong parent collaboration. In Personalized Principal Leadership Practices. Emerald Publishing Limited.

The article emphasizes the importance of parent-school collaboration for improving learners’ outcomes. The article also describes some non-traditional involvement strategies, such as monthly teas, learning walks, and initiative groups.

Moore, S., & Lasky, S. (1999). Parents involvement in education: Models, strategies and contexts. Building Bridges between Home and School, 9(5), 13-18.

The article claims that even though parental involvement is associated with improved academic performance of children, in some cases it can lead increased conflicts between stakeholders. Thus, utilization of efficient practices is crucial for achieving the best learners’ outcomes.

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The article provides a brief overview of the topic of parental involvement in the modern era. The article conceptualizes parental involvement and touches upon its benefits, dangers, and efficient strategies that promote parental involvement.

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The article describes the effect of involvement of over-protective parents in students’ education. The author insists that over-protective parents usually have a negative impact on students’ academic success and adjustment. Such parents reduce self-efficacy of their children and increase the chance of bullying.

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The article provides a broad overview of factors affecting academic achievement of students. The authors list a large number of factors and subdivide them into academic, social, cultural, and financial groups.

Zhang, Y. (2020). Quality matters more than quantity: Parent–child communication and adolescents’ academic performance. Frontiers in Psychology, 11 (1203).

The article describes a correlational study that utilizes quantitative methods to describe relationship between quantity of parental involvement and academic achievement and between quality of parental involvement and academic achievement. The author finds no significant correlation between quantity of parental involvement and academic achievement. The findings suggest that parents should raise their children in the atmosphere of trust and support to improve their academic achievement.

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StudyCorgi. 2022. "Role of Parental Involvement in the Modern Era." January 18, 2022. https://studycorgi.com/role-of-parental-involvement-in-the-modern-era/.

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StudyCorgi. (2022) 'Role of Parental Involvement in the Modern Era'. 18 January.

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