Parental Involvement in Urban School District


This is a critical review of a collection of five articles, related to education and the involvement of parents in schools. The various effects of education on children and the administrative interactions of school personnel and parents are discussed concisely.

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Over the past few years, parental involvement in schools has held great significance in the quality of education being imparted. Academic standards are attempted to remain of the highest possible standards, and educational expenses are closely watched by all. Parents are conscious of their children’s future, which leads them to get involved in the academic activities being carried out in schools. A vigilant eye on the children would also help teachers pay more attention to them, and also enhance their motivation for further competence with classmates.

The articles given for review show the involvement of parents in school activities, and how their interactions have an impact on the behavioral outcomes of school going children. The five studies have varying amounts of children under observation, with differing results.

The overall analysis is that the involvement of parents in academic activities has shown positive results in the students’ performances, whether behavior-wise, or in studies and other academic activities.

The longitudinal model of parental involvement was examined in one of the studies, for a specific range of children, between ages twelve and sixteen years. The involvement in the activities of secondary school children was seen. It was shown that the ethnicity and educational levels of parents have an outcome on the children’s’ behaviors (Hill, et al, 2004).

Effects of Parental Involvement on Behavior of Children

The behavior of school going children is seen to be affected with the involvement of parents academically. Those whose parents were educated produced better behavioral outcomes than those who were of low educational backgrounds. The behavior of children whose parents showed interest in their academics proved to be better than those who did not.

Effects of Education and Ethnicity of Parental Groups on Students

Those parents who have reasonable educational backgrounds, and are involved in the studies of their children, along with other academic activities, prove to give better results of children’s behavioral attitudes.

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High parental educational groups have found to produce lesser behavioral problems related to achievement. The groups of parents who have a lower educational level affect the aspirations of students rather than achievement or behavior. This signifies the effects of the parents education on the child’s behavior (Hill,, 2004).

Effects of ethnicity indicate that the academic involvement of parents of African Americans was positively related to achievement as compared to the European Americans. Different socio demographic backgrounds have shown to produce different behavioral outcomes of students. Ethnic groups of parents place importance on the characteristics of schools (Friedman,, 2006).

Effects of Socio-economic Status on Children

Children are affected by the socioeconomic status they belong to. When variables of socioeconomic status were included in the analyses of researchers, it was seen that they produced consistent results with the other factors influencing educational outcomes. All had positive impact on the educational outcomes of twelfth graders of African American origin (Jeyenes, 2005).

Gender Bias and Education

It is strange that females have always been degraded and considered the lower caste, but surprisingly the studies have shown that parents of daughters have been seen more involved in academics than those of sons. Parents seem to be more interested I the activities of their daughters than their sons (Jeyenes, 2005). This helps in paying more attention to the female sector, which is already the lower gender all over the world. So there is no bias of the genders when involvement of parents in their children’s school activities is concerned.

Parental Involvement and the Changes that Take Place Over Time

The involvement of parents in school activities does not remain the same throughout the child’s academic span, neither does it produce the same results for the child’s outcomes. Everything changes with time. The same is the case with the functioning of children in school. One of the studies has shown the analysis of student behavior of the lower age group ranging from the kindergarten level to the third grade, and a period of three years was taken for observing the results. After examining the frequency of the parent-teacher contacts, the quality of their interactions, participation in activities at home and in school, it was seen that they all went to a lower level in the third year, as compared to the first year. The involvement of parents in the child’s schooling is related to the functioning of the school also, so it should be enhanced (Izzo,, 1999).

Outcomes of Secondary School Children

A meta analysis carried out shows that the involvement of parents in the activities of secondary school children shows differences in outcomes. The overall aspects of a student’s performance, including all grades achieved, tests, examinations, behavioral pattern, social habits, etc., showed that the influence of parental involvement is significant for children who are enrolled in secondary school (Jeyenes, 2007). The white or minority children, who are of various ethnic groups, both produce positive effects when their parents get indulged in their school affairs, and fabricate positivity in the characters of the children.

From the studies we can see that the involvement of parents in children’s education leaves a strong impact on the way they perform in class and their overall personalities. Parents are always careful to give their children the best they can by putting them in the educational institutes they find topmost. This also requires continuous checking, to see whether the quality of education being imparted is up to the standards and if they are getting good value for the money they are investing.

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The performance of children depends on the involvement of the teachers, as well as the parents, as the students then have the fear of working harder to produce good results, if parents are continually examining them and their behavior at school. The findings of these studies have shown that the different ethnic groups to which society generally belongs, affects the education of the students. This is true, but it is also shown that all kinds of ethnic groups require involvement of parents in their activities. It does not show anywhere that the majority of students who are white have more need for parent involvement than their counterparts. Secondly, the education of the parents lay a difference on the behavior of students.


The studies showed good results, with authentic information regarding the effects of the involvement of parents in student lives and performances. It is a significant approach to get rewarding personalities in adult lives from the children.


William H. Jeyenes (2007) URBAN EDUCATION, 22, pp.82-110.

Friedman,Bobrowski& Geraci (2008). Journal of Educational Administration.

Hill, Castellino, Nowlin (2004). Child Deveolpment.

Izzo,Weissberg,Kasprow&Fendrich (1999). American Journal of Community Psychology.

Jeyenes (2005). The Journal of Negro Education.

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