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Roman Aqueducts: Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography

Baiocchi, Valerio, Claudio Alimonti, Giorgia Bonanotte, and Gabor Molnar. 2020. “Geomatic Measurement of “New Aniene” And “Claudia” Roman Aqueducts for Flows Estimation.” IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 949: 1-8. Web.

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The author’s topic revolves around the measurement of the geometric properties of two major aqueducts of Ancient Rome, which are “New Aniene” and “Claudia,” in regards to the flow estimations. The thesis is that these ancient structures maintained the steady flow of water through the inclination of the slope is one average of 0.2% for both aqueducts’ historical descriptions, which means the gradual change and alterations were minor. The methodology was based on direct on-site measurements, where the obtained data were used for further calculations in order to the subsidence value of 0.45m. The study falls under the category of historical architecture, where the construction of aqueducts is of paramount importance. The evidence is primarily based on the precise measurement of two major aqueducts, such as “New Aniene” and “Claudia.”

The main point of the article is that the slope values in historical descriptions and slope values of measurement vary on average by 0.2%, which means that the further calculations are reliable. The precise values for the aqueduct of New Aniene are 0.131%, and the aqueduct of Claudia is 0.179%. In other words, the calculated subsidence is equal to 0.45m, where the flow area for New Aniene is 1.44m2 and 1.97m2, and for Claudia is 2.25m2. Therefore, the author’s goal is to build the most precise model of these aqueducts, and there is no sign of biases. The main strength of the source is that there is little to no variation in measurements and historical data. The deficiency can be found in the flow area reliance on two highly variant values. The author helped to further the understanding of the topic by providing precise estimations and measurements of two aqueducts. In comparison to other sources, the article is mostly informative with highly reliable evidence and calculations.

Blackman, Deane R. 1978. “The Volume of Water Delivered by the Four Great Aqueducts of Rome.” Papers of the British School at Rome 46: 52-72. Web.

The author’s topic is centered around the volumetric assessment of water delivery in Roman aqueducts. The thesis is that the four great aqueducts collectively delivered water at the volume of 7 m3/s, which is equal to 600000 m3 per 24 hours. The methodology utilized is based on using the existing measurement data from four major Roman aqueducts in order to have sufficient information to conduct hydraulic calculations of the water delivery volume values. Therefore, the evidence is not fully reliable since the calculations were not based on complete and precise structural models of aqueducts, and it falls under history. The main point of the study is that the slopes of Vetus, Marcia, Claudia, and Novus are equal to 0.27%, 0.29%, 0.37%, and 0.49%, respectively.

The author’s primary goal is to make accurate estimations of the volumetric and hydraulic properties of four major Roman aqueducts. There are clear biases in regards to estimation-based calculation with a heavy reliance on recorded data. The strength of the research is the fact that it delivers an accurate estimation of water volume delivered by four major aqueducts of Rome, but the weakness is the unreliable nature of mean value utilization, which might include inaccurate structural measurements. The article helped to have a more thorough understanding of the aqueducts’ functional properties, especially in regards to the four largest aqueducts, such as Vetus, Marcia, Claudia, and Novus. The article is different from other sources because it attempts to analyze the functional aspect of Roman aqueducts rather than structural elements. This means that the author conducted an outstanding assessment of the volume delivery estimates in the city of Ancient Rome without a redundant description of structural features.

De Feo, Giovanni, Larry Mays, and A. N. Angelakis. 2016. “Water and Wastewater Management Technologies in the Ancient Greek and Roman Civilizations.” Water-Quality Engineering 4: 3-22. Web.

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The author mainly focuses on the topic of the aqueducts of Greece and the Roman Empire, where the thesis is that there were 11 key structural elements of aqueducts in Rome. The methodology is primarily based on a combinatory assessment of contemporary data alongside the historical records. In other words, the work falls under the discipline of the history of waste and water management. The evidence is mostly referential, where outside sources are used in combination for the reconstruction of the main structure of the aqueducts of Rome. The main point revolves around the notion that aqueducts consisted of the water distribution system, basin for distribution, arcade, substruction, inverted siphon, aqueduct bridge, covered trench, tunnel, and shafts, settling tank, steep chutes, and the source itself.

The authors’ goal is to provide a proper structural description of the Roman aqueducts by analyzing the existing data and measurements. There are no notable biases, which could make the derived knowledge implausible. The critical analysis of the source revealed that the key strength of the article is the fact that many structural elements of aqueducts are present in a wide range of records, but the weakness is the lack of proper evidence in regards to the water distribution system itself. The article provided an invaluable insight into the structural nature of Roman aqueducts and their uniqueness in regard to Greece counterparts. The source is comparably comprehensive in contrast to other sources because it is more summative and cumulative. In other words, the authors present a more empirical approach toward the generalization of aqueduct elements, where the emphasis is put on the key functional aspects.

De Feo, Giovanni. Andreas N. Angelakis, Georgios P. Antoniou, Fatma El-Gohary, Benoit Haut, Cees W. Passchier, and Xiao Yun Zheng. 2013. “Historical and Technical Notes on Aqueducts from Prehistoric to Medieval Times.” Water 5 (4): 1996-2025. Web.

The authors’ topic is focused on the analysis of the historical evolution of aqueduct systems throughout millennia until the sophisticated uses by Romans and Ottomans. The thesis is that Roman expanded the system of aqueducts in order to meet their needs for active bathing. The methodology is centered around the review of the existing literature on aqueduct systems throughout the millennia and provides the categorization of these records. The evidence is reliable since most of the knowledge is well-established and supported by historians, which means that it falls under the discipline of history. Roman aqueducts were generally much larger in size and the volume delivery metrics because the construction of public baths required amounts of water.

The authors’ goal is to deliver a comprehensive assessment and summative analysis of the evolution of the aqueducts system from prehistoric times until the Roman and Ottoman Empires. There are no evident biases because the literature review is based on extensive amounts of data. The key strength of the article is that it utilizes highly reliable sources, which makes the review accurate, but the weakness is the lack of in-depth assessment of pre-Roman aqueducts. The article helped to further understand the topic by presenting both social and historical explanations for aqueduct evolution throughout millennia. By comparing the given source with other ones, it becomes clear that it provides the most extensive and broadest overview of the transformations of the aqueduct system as well as the social context reasons for a more mass-scale use of aqueducts in Ancient Rome.

Deming, David. 2020. “The Aqueducts and Water Supply of Ancient Rome.” Ground Water 58 (1): 152-161. Web.

The author’s topic revolves around the cultural and historical analysis of Roman achievements in hydraulic engineering, where the thesis is that despite Roman accomplishments in regard to the system of aqueducts, there were major sanitation issues. The methodology is based on the study and assessment of primary sources, such as the writings of Vitruvius and Frontinus, physical ruins, and inscriptions of Ancient Rome. In other words, the evidence is based on historical records, which puts the study under the discipline of history. The main point of the author is that Romans were not the first ones to adopt aqueduct systems, but they were highly culturally important due to Romans’ obsession with hygiene and bathing. However, their major sanitation issues in regards to waste disposal and water delivery.

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The author’s goal is to address the cultural and historical aspects of aqueducts in Ancient Rome, and the study presents no significant biases besides the redundant comparison with modern norms. The main strength of the article is that it includes the cultural analysis of aqueducts’ role in the lives of Romans, but the limitations can be observed in the comparative assessment with the contemporary standards. The article greatly helps to further the overall understanding of the topic by providing insights and observations of the cultural importance of aqueducts to Ancient Rome. Therefore, it is different compared to other sources because it analyzes how the aqueduct system transformed Roman Empire. The general trend is that bathing was the main facilitator of the fact that Roman aqueducts were the most expansive and largest in history, which made them unique and highly effective.

References

Baiocchi, Valerio, Claudio Alimonti, Giorgia Bonanotte, and Gabor Molnar. 2020. “Geomatic Measurement of “New Aniene” And “Claudia” Roman Aqueducts for Flows Estimation.” IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 949: 1-8. Web.

Blackman, Deane R. 1978. “The Volume of Water Delivered by the Four Great Aqueducts of Rome.” Papers of the British School at Rome 46: 52-72. Web.

De Feo, Giovanni, Larry Mays, and A. N. Angelakis. 2016. “Water and Wastewater Management Technologies in the Ancient Greek and Roman Civilizations.” Water-Quality Engineering 4: 3-22. Web.

De Feo, Giovanni. Andreas N. Angelakis, Georgios P. Antoniou, Fatma El-Gohary, Benoit Haut, Cees W. Passchier, and Xiao Yun Zheng. 2013. “Historical and Technical Notes on Aqueducts from Prehistoric to Medieval Times.” Water 5 (4): 1996-2025. Web.

Deming, David. 2020. “The Aqueducts and Water Supply of Ancient Rome.” Ground Water 58 (1): 152-161. Web.

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