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Schizophrenia: Causes and Symptoms

The leading causes of the development of schizophrenia include heredity, an unfavorable environment, and negative social conditions. Many scientists are of the opinion that schizophrenia develops as a result of the impaired metabolism of neurotransmitters, particularly dopamine, in the brain (McCutcheon et al., 2019). Neurotransmitters are biologically active substances that are produced by nerve cells, or neurons, and transmit information to brain cells (McCutcheon et al., 2019). From a gender perspective, there is no clear division in terms of the incidence of schizophrenia, although the disorder tends to appear earlier in males.

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The symptoms of the disorder depend on its form and can be individual in nature. In accordance with intensity, there are four main forms of schizophrenia. Catatonic is accompanied by stupor in action and thinking; with it, the appearance of short-term stages of arousal is possible (Uribe & Torres, 2018). The paranoid form is severe and accompanied by obsessions, hallucinations, and delusional ideas (Uribe & Torres, 2018). The residual form is characterized by a chronic course with a dull emotional state (Uribe & Torres, 2018). Finally, hebephrenic schizophrenia is often observed in young people and is considered the most difficult type, accompanied by weak adaptability to the social environment (Uribe & Torres, 2018). Moreover, this is customary to distinguish three main courses of the disorder. The first of these is mastery when the familiar world is distorted by hallucinations and perception changes. The next course is adaptation when one gets used to the new realities. With degradation, emotional devastation occurs, and time and space lose significance. This is crucial to consider all these symptoms to determine the correct stage of the disease and prescribe an effective treatment.


McCutcheon, R. A., Abi-Dargham, A., & Howes, O. D. (2019). Schizophrenia, dopamine and the striatum: From biology to symptoms. Trends in Neurosciences, 42(3), 205-220. Web.

Uribe, E., & Torres, M. (2018). Neuropsychological screening for schizophrenia: A brief tool to assess subtypes of schizophrenia. Revista eNeurobiología, 9(21), 240918.

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