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Teachers’ Expectancies: Determinants of Pupils’ IQ Gains

The paper under the investigation is written by Robert Rosenthal and Leonore Jacobson, and it is called Teachers expectancies: Determinants of pupils IQ gains. Despite the fact that the article was written in the middle of the past century, the given issue could still be considered crucial as it gives ground for vigorous debates. The outcomes of the teaching process have always been an ongoing issue, and there have always been numerous attempts to improve them. Besides, the paper delves into the main factors that might impact IQ gains and contribute to good final results. Researchers suggest the research question of whether expectancies have a positive effect on the increase of IQ levels if to compare with the usual approach or not (Rosenthal & Jacobson, 1966). The importance of the given question is obvious as the struggle for the high level of acquired knowledge is one of the main tasks of educators. Additionally, the authors manage to justify the importance of the suggested issue saying that previous researches showed positive results in case the level of expectations was high. For this reason, in the course of the investigation, the authors delve into the main peculiarities of this issue and tend to prove either refute the given idea and outline factors that might affect IQ levels and contribute to positive results.

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Besides, the given research question might be considered complex as there are numerous aspects that should be investigated to collect credible data related to the topic. First of all, the authors should engage a certain number of respondents who will provide statistical data needed for the comprehensive analysis of the suggested research question. For this reason, Rosenthal and Jacobson conduct quantitative research to process the data collected in terms of a quasi-experimental study. The choice of respondents is preconditioned by the expected level of IQ and other factors that might impact the final result. Furthermore, the authors distinguish two groups’ experimental and control one to compare the results of the study and make a final conclusion about the way different factors impact the level of acquired knowledge and final results (Rosenthal & Jacobson, 1966). Besides, considering the aim of the research and peculiarities of the issue, we could state that the choice of the methodology is appropriate. It could result in the acquisition of relevant data that should be processed to introduce the topic for the discussion and answer the suggested research question. The usage of quasi-experimental study and quantitative design is crucial to investigate the way teachers’ expectations impact pupils and their IQ levels.

The exploration of the above-mentioned methodology provides the data that shows that the high expectations really have a great impact on pupils IQ growth and the quality of acquired knowledge (Rosenthal & Jacobson, 1966). Besides, comparing the results of experimental and control groups, the researchers come to the conclusion that IQ gains are significantly better among pupils who are said to have great abilities. In the term of eight months, respondents belonging to the experimental group were able to demonstrate significant IQ gains. The given data obviously helps to answer the suggested research question and state that in case the level of expectations is high, an educator might count for much better results. The given statement could be considered the direct evidence of the outstanding efficiency of the suggested approach. However, there are still several questions that should be answered.

First of all, researchers doubt whether the IQ gains were conditioned by the fact that these respondents were included in control groups or there were other factors that affected the significant improvement of final results (Rosenthal & Jacobson, 1966). Additionally, another important question which still remains after the given investigation is how a teachers high level of expectancies shape pupils behavior and to which extent these factors are interrelated. The authors of the research are sure that the statistic and numerical data obtained in the course of their investigation proves the overall tendency towards the improved results in case a pupil realizes the fact that his/her mental abilities are appreciated (Rosenthal & Jacobson, 1966). However, they are still not able to give a definite answer to what is the main factor that impacts the appearance of new behavioral patterns among pupils. Thus, despite the existence of these questions, there are still numerous practical implications of these findings. Educators are able to use the given approach when working with a pupil or when trying to improve the quality of their knowledge. Furthermore, the given data might introduce the ground for further investigation of the factors that might impact IQ gains among people.

Altogether, the article might be considered a good example of an academic research paper that is focused on the investigation of the correlation between the level of expectations and final outcomes. The authors manage to conduct an experimental study that provided the data for the following discussion and conclusion. The approaches and methodology chosen by these researchers could be considered appropriate as they contribute to the acquisition of relevant information needed to compare results and discuss them. It could be used for the investigation of the given issue and further discussion.


Rosenthal, R., & Jacobson, L. (1966). Teachers expectancies: determinants of pupils IQ gains. Psychological Reports, 19, 115-118.

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