The 21st century could be characterized by increased tension in international relations. Constant civil wars, numerous local conflicts, and skirmishes became an integral part of the modern world and ruined the lives of thousands of people. However, there is another concern which introduces even more complex threat. It is terrorism, which became one of the stigmas of the modern century. At the moment, no one could feel secure as terrorist attacks might happen everywhere and cause critical damage to a village, town, and city. It is obvious that there are numerous attempts to create a security system that will be able to eliminate the threat; however, there is no perfect approach, and menace still exists. In this regard, to be able to respond to this new challenge and mitigate its negative impact on modern society, the improved comprehending of its roots and major features are needed. Only in case, we are able to understand the way it evolves, and an efficient solution could be suggested.
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Delving into the problem of terrorism, one could admit the fact that it is not a new phenomenon. Even in ancient times, people suffered from the manifestations of this social stigma. Emperors, kings and local rulers were killed by terrorists who wanted to attract attention to their activity and goals. However, it is our age, which gave rise to the rapid evolution of this kind of oppression and struggle. There are several reasons for the creation of the background beneficial for the evolution of terrorism. Besides, at the moment, the Middle Eastern region is associated with it. This tendency comes from the non-homogeneous character of the epoch. There are representatives of numerous religious movements and cultures who struggle for their land and rights. Additionally, for centuries this region had been occupied by Europeans. Leaving this land because of the rise of civil movements, they acted unwisely and created the ground for the rise of terrorism. At the moment, the complexity of relations in the region results in increased tension and adherence to terror.
Revolving around the given issue, it is crucial to introduce the most appropriate and comprehensive definition of terrorism. The fact is that there is no unified and avowed explanation of this term as different sciences suggest their own one (Fearon and Laitin 86). Besides, it is possible to state that the use of violence or threat of violence in order to purport a political, religious, or cultural change could be defined as terrorism (Fearon and Laitin 86). Thus, there are several important aspects of this very definition. First of all, the threat of violence is as efficient and frightening as violence itself, and, for this reason, it could also be related to terrorism. Additionally, every terrorist group or organization has a certain goal that is going to be achieved due to the exploration of the above-mentioned measures (Bloom 67). For this reason, the definition of terrorism should also include an indication of the main purpose of these acts. Altogether, despite different approaches to defining this very phenomenon, its nature remains the same.
Another crucial point peculiar to terrorism is its opposition to state or legal government. There are numerous causes for the evolution of this very phenomenon; however, the result remains the same. Terrorist groups become the main sources of instability in the region (Bloom, 68). Additionally, they also play a crucial role in communicative violence between non-state actors and a state. Very often, terrorists appear as a response to the policy which disregards the needs of a certain layer of society (Sandler 264). Being not able to impact the government in legal ways or just wanting to topple it, terrorist organizations gather the support of people who are also not satisfied with their current state. Furthermore, very often, these very groups might be organized by non-state actors who want to impact the existing regime and attain certain benefits. In such a case, terrorist groups are used as a lever of pressure explored to attain benefits and introduce instability to the region.
Unfortunately, very often, the above-mentioned pattern is used not only by non-state actors. Recognizing the great power of this phenomenon, governments might also use it in their foreign policies to attain a competitive advantage or impact the policy of other states. Thus, they are not able to act directly as the world community condemns terrorism and proclaims its total elimination to be one of the most important modern goals (Sandler 268). For this reason, the states that explore terrorist organizations act through their proxies. They might sponsor these groups and introduce the vector for their evolution and main goals. One should realize the fact that the given practice is completely inappropriate in the modern world as a country becomes one of the main forces that promote the further spread of terrorism, its increased power, and further spread to other regions. States should not explore the given phenomenon as very soon it will become uncontrolled, and ISIS serves as perfect evidence to this very statement.
For this reason, the problem of sponsoring terrorism becomes especially crucial. The fact is that at the moment, there is no efficient rule of law that will be able to provide an opportunity to define a state that cooperates with different terrorist groups, a force that promotes the rise of terrorism. That is why there are still a number of attempts to cultivate cultural and religious conflicts to trigger the appearance of opposition and increased terrorist activity. Thus, the necessity of the mechanism is obvious. International agencies like the United Nations should be able to introduce sanctions and strict limits to offenders and make them stop this practice. Only under these conditions, the further spread of terrorism could be stopped. It has to be excluded from tools used by a certain government to attain a competitive advantage and a more stable position. To act in this very way, financial torrents and cooperation with agents that are known for their close links with terrorist groups should be monitored. In case a state is suspected in any activity that might deteriorate the current situation, it should be provided with an ultimatum.
Therefore, one should also remember the crucial impact terrorism has on the evolution of states, international relations, and the quality of people’s lives. In case the cooperation between a state and any terrorist organization is disregarded, it might have a pernicious effect on the situation in the area, and ISIS serves as the perfect example of this very statement. It was created as the force being able to introduce instability to the region and weaken certain governments (Orehek and Vazeno-Nieuwenhuis 253). In theory, in case this sort of cooperation is disregarded, the basis for the further deterioration of the situation is created. Thus, practical implications include the organization of the framework needed to destroy this partnership and guarantee the significant improvement of the current situation. Considering these facts, we could state that the majority of modern terrorist organizations could be characterized as instrumental entities that are used to achieve a certain purpose or to introduce instability to the region (Pape 352).
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For this reason, these very groups could be described as tools created and used by different actors that try to impact the situation in the world. The exploration of this very entity might also be considered a part of a specific strategy aimed at the increase of the sphere of influence and becoming the most important factor in the region (Boulton). For this reason, when creating a certain anti-terrorist policy, it is crucial to consider this very fact to choose the most efficient approach. As practice shows, the struggle with terrorist organizations with developed infrastructure is extremely complex. In this regard, it is recommended to monitor the situation and be ready to suppress the further development of a certain organization that is going to use terror as one of its main instruments. Additionally, states that support extremist organizations should also be punished to become the main contributors to the appearance of instability in the world.
Altogether, we could conclude that terrorism is a complex phenomenon which became extremely topical for modern society. There are numerous definitions of terrorism that tend to include all aspects that should be considered when delving into the issue. The struggle against terrorist organizations is one of the main modern tasks which is complicated by numerous factors like the governmental support provided by various states, complex infrastructure, and sophisticated relations in the region.
Bloom, Mia. “Palestinian Suicide Bombing: Public Support, Market Share, and Outbidding.” Political Science Quarterly, vol. 119, no.1, 2004, pp. 61-88.
Boulton, Andrew. “Of Terrorism and Revenue: Why Foreign Aid Exacerbates Terrorism in Personalist Regimes.” Conflict Management and Peace Science, 2016, Web.
Fearon, James, and David Laitin. “Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War.” The American Political Science Review, vol. 97, no. 1, 2003, pp. 75-90.
Orehek, Edward, and Anna Vazeno-Nieuwenhuis. “Understanding the Terrorist Threat.” Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences. vol. 1, no.1, 2014, pp. 248-255, Web.
Pape, Robert. “The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism.” The American Political Science Review, vol. 97, no.1, 2003, pp. 343-361.
Sandler, Todd. “The Analytical Study of Terrorism.” Journal of Peace Research, vol. 51, no. 2, 2014, pp. 257-271, Web.