Genetic research has contributed to the understanding of various physiological patterns, traits, and processes. The analysis of genes and the role they play was instrumental in identifying diverse inheritable disorders associated with sex. Color blindness is one of the most well-known sex-related disorders, although it can be difficult to diagnose it or assess its severity (Eichler, 2019). At present, this abnormality is well-researched, and different instruments to diagnose it exist, although no cure has been developed so far. This paper includes a brief description of the major aspects of the disorder.
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The research related to color blindness is associated with a certain degree of bias due to people’s perception of color, which is closely linked to the major symptoms of the disease. People diagnosed with this vision impairment do not see colors properly. The most frequent symptom is the inability to differentiate between red and green colors (Eichler, 2019). It has been acknowledged that color blindness is mainly observed in males of northern European ancestry, and the prevalence of the disorder in this group is almost 16% (Eichler, 2019). Color blindness is associated with the X chromosome and is a result of mutations in opsin genes (red-and-green-cone pigment) that are located in a single locus. The expression of these recessive traits is restricted to the specific position of genes (the first or second).
In simple terms, color blindness is inherited by a boy who may receive the recessive color blindness gene from his mother or father. The boy will be color blind as the Y chromosome does not have genes that could dominate the deficient one (Eichler, 2019). If a girl receives color blindness gene, the other X chromosome may have a gene that will dominate the affected one, and the girl will not display any symptoms of the disorder. However, she will be the carrier of the trait and may pass it to her children.
Although the cure is yet to be developed, various color blindness tests are available. For instance, Cambridge Color Test is one of the most frequently utilized tests to identify the disorder (Davidoff, Neitz, & Neitz, 2016). A genetic test is now available as well, and it is seen as an effective way to diagnose the disease. Davidoff et al. (2016) stress that the test they developed, referred to as the MassArray assay, can be utilized in combination with psychological assessments.
The researchers add that the assay can be the central measurement when people apply to certain jobs. For instance, some candidates may try to conceal their condition, but this genetic test is reliable (Davidoff et al., 2016). It is, by all means, ethical to conduct this genetic test in such cases as the wellbeing and life of many people may depend on some professionals’ ability to discriminate colors. The military service is one of the major fields that can benefit from the use of the MassArray test.
In conclusion, color blindness is one of the most well-known sex-related disorders. This disease mainly affects males of European descent, although other groups can also display the associated symptoms. Females are usually the carriers of the deficient gene located in the X chromosome. Color blindness is an incurable disorder, but many tests assessing the degree of the deficiency exist. A reliable genetic test is also available and can be employed in some cases.
Davidoff, C., Neitz, M., & Neitz, J. (2016). Genetic testing as a new standard for clinical diagnosis of color vision deficiencies. Translational Vision Science & Technology, 5(5), 1-16. Web.
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Eichler, E. E. (2019). Genetic variation, comparative genomics, and the diagnosis of disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 381(1), 64-74. Web.