Modern world faced the problem of terrorism spreading being the darkest side of human behavior throughout the whole history. Terrorism is expressed by means of incredible violence towards the society; its promotion contributed to the challenges within social stability and people’s consciousness. It is necessary to underline the idea that modern world faced the influence of terrorism not only through terrorists strikes, but also on the basis of Information Age benefits, such as satellite communications, the Internet and global news coverage, which broadcast terrorists’ graphic images into millions of people’s homes.
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The analysis of terrorism is to be concentrated on sociological approach allowing determining the true reasons, causes and effects of violence promotion in modern world. The paper will be focused on the investigation of true intentions reflected through social violence, and identification of terrorism sociology on the basis of terrorists groups and individuals.
The acts of terrorism are predominantly associated with political violence; it is necessary to stress that bombs planting in various marketplaces and public places has politically motivated character, and are expressed through governmental torture use. The analysis of terrorism nature and causes can be illustrated on the basis of the global terrorism tragedy on September, 11, 2001. This event appeared to be the turning point in the political violence history; it influenced the formation of new terrorists groups and promotion of violence environment not only in the USA, but throughout the whole world. It should be noted that this atmosphere allowed modern terrorists using freely the weapons of mass destruction.
It is necessary to underline the fact that modern terrorism environment is concentrated on the conflict between religious representatives promoting holy war for the purpose of their religion defense. The terrorists groups are usually motivated by certain causes justifying their terror, considering their tactics logical and following particular goals. It is necessary to stress that terrorism acts can be motivated by the following things:
- Political and Social injustice in modern national environment – this aspect is aimed at the defense of human rights in the social and political spheres;
- Violence is considered to be effective in reaching and satisfying their needs;
It is necessary to note that such position in modern world provide a direct impact on the lives of ordinary people, who stick to terrorist tactics in their everyday activities. In accordance with Keet, 2005, ‘Probably the most contested cause of terrorism is an aggrieved group resorting to violence for nationalist or separatist reasons; depending on one’s point of view, this can be considered as resistance against an external aggressor’ (Keet, 2005). Some terrorist groups provoked freedom movements through which they liberated themselves from their foreign occupation. Besides, such factors as globalization, economic disadvantages and instabilities, as well as poverty can stimulate the development of terrorism aggressiveness. Galtung, 2002, explained such an atmosphere through class conflict related to the Third World. It should be stressed that structural violence provides common injustice within the population leading to class and rights discrimination in the society. Guelke, 1995, managed to draw a line between liberal democracy and economic affluence resulting in globalization conflict and inequality; ‘…liberal democracy has proved little more successful than other forms of political systems in overcoming the relative weakness of the state in many Third World societies.’ (Keet, 2005).
Dehumanization is considered to be one more cause for high terrorism movements’ promotions in modern society; this aspect is closely connected with the pressure on the part of governing bodies and religions concerning rights and freedoms, terrorists have to fight for. In accordance with Hayes, 2002, ‘The one social factor that does have some detectable correlation with war is religion. Nations that differ in religion are more likely to fight than those that share the same religion. Moreover, some sects seem generally to be more bellicose (Christian nations participated in a disproportionate number of conflicts). But these effects are not large.’ (Hayes, 2002).
Sociological Approach in Terrorism Analysis
Sociological approach on terrorism development has not been considerable studied yet, though there are a lot of scientific and social theories focused on this point. It is necessary to underline the fact that the emergence of terrorism groups and individuals is closely connected with recruiting suicide commandos and development of mass destruction weapons. Sociological approach studies terrorism on the basis of the particular aspects, such as, terrorism as communication, political violence, socializing terrorists, theorizing terrorism, organizing and social construction terrorism (Turk, 2004). All the factors mentioned above are considered to be the reflection of modern human activities and their darkest side causing aggressiveness on the part of oppressed communities and minorities.
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Terrorism is considered to be the result of religious, sociological and political instabilities as well as psychological ones. It should be noted that terrorism is referred to multicausal phenomena, covering such problems as modernization stresses, political inequities, ideological conflicts and violence in cultural traditions. Besides, in some cases, regime erosions, and governmental weaknesses may be the reason for violence promotion within particular social groups.
Considering organizational side of terrorism spreading, it should be stressed that it is perceived through a rational strategic course being aimed at the goal fulfillment developed by certain terrorist group. ‘Acts of terrorism are committed by groups who reach collective decisions based on commonly held beliefs, although the level of individual commitment to the group and its belief varies’ (Hudson, & Majeska, 1999) Such groups are usually dominated by its leader, for example, Osama bin Laden, Abu Nidal, or Shoko Asahara, though the decisions are made collectively.
Terrorism and Criminal Justice System
Modern criminal justice system is focused on the development of measures to fight violence environment promoted in the society. In 2002, Crime Prevention Commission and General Assembly managed to work out the mandates to assist in terrorism countering. UNODC provides certain advantages in order to deliver assistance in counter terrorism; it is focused on the creation of specialized expertise relating to particular areas for the purpose of crime rate prevention. The report of UNODC Strategy says, ‘the principle objectives lie in effective responses to crime, drugs and terrorism by facilitating the implementation of relevant international legal instruments’ (UNODC’s role in Terrorism Prevention, 2009).
Technical assistance to the anti terrorism program developed within modern system of justice is concentrated on the following objectives:
- The achievement of full ratification of necessary legal instruments developed against terrorism;
- Providing the assistance to the countries requiring domestic legislation apply;
- The International cooperation facilitation in criminal matters connected with terrorism;
- The strengthening of collaboration in counter-terrorism legal aspects.
The problem of international terrorism and violence is considered to be the central question in strategic planning and development of criminal justice system. It should be noted that that in 2008, there was developed the anti terrorism report identifying the following goals: public safety and protection, crime prevention and reduction, personal identity safeguarding, border controls through immigration system, and the development of security measures policy for the society (Hudson, & Majeska, 1999).
The paper managed to analyze the nature and causes of terrorism in the territory of the USA and throughout the world. It is necessary to underline the fact that the principle causes for violence environment in modern world are connected with political, religious, economical and social instability. Despite this fact, there are some psychological factors leading to aggressiveness on the part of individuals, they can be explained through limitation in human rights and cultural traditions.
Sociological approach in terrorism analysis identified the principle features of violence movements. Modern system of justice is concentrated on the development of certain measures in order to combat and reduce the level of crimes within the society; it was shown that key elements are described through public safety assurance by means of immigration control and specialized policies development.
- Hudson, R. and Majeska, M. (1999). The Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism: Who becomes a terrorist and Why? Library of Congress. Web.
- Hayes, Brian, (2002), ‘Computing Science – The statistics of deadly quarrels’. American Scientist, 2002, pp. 10-15.
- Keet, M. (2005). Causes of Terrorism. Web.
- Martin, G. (2006). Understanding terrorism: challenges, perspectives, and issues. 2nd Edition. SAGE.
- Turk, A. (2004). Annual Review of Sociology. Sociology of Terrorism. University of California.
- UNODC’s role in Terrorism Prevention. (2009). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.